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复习资料 >> 学位外语 >> 2016年吉林省学位外语考试资料(阅读理解 完型填空英译汉翻译练习)

作者:吉林大学自考网                                   来源:www.jdzkw.com

2016年吉林省学位外语考试资料(阅读理解 完型填空英译汉翻译练习)

培训保过班18604448283

阅读理解

Part II

Reading Comprehension(40 points)阅读理解一

Passage One

A report published recently brings bad news about air pollution. It suggests that it could be as damaging to our health as exposure to the radiation from the 1986 Ukraine nuclear power disaster the report was published by the UK Royal commission on environmental Pollution but what can city people do to reduce exposure to air pollution? Quite a lot, it turns out.

Avoid walking in busy streets. Choose side streets and parks instead. Pollution levels can fall a considerable amount just by moving a few meters away from the main pollution source exhaust fumes(烟气). Also don t walk behind smokers. Walk on the windward side of the street where exposure to pollutants can be 50 percent less than on the downwind side.

Sitting on the drivers side of a bus can increase your exposure by 10 percent, compared exposure. It is difficult to say whether traveling on an underground train is better or worse than taking the bus air pollution on underground trains tends to be less toxic than that at street level, because underground pollution is mostly made up of tiny iron particles thrown up by wheels hitting the rails but diesel and petrol fumes have a mixture of pollutants.

When you are crossing a road, stand well back from the curb while you wait for the light to change. Every meter really does count when you are close to traffic. As the traffic begins to move fumes can be reduced in just a few seconds so holding your breath for just a moment can make a difference, even though it might sound silly.

There are large sudden pollution increases during rush hours. Pollution levels fall during nighttime. The time of year also makes a big difference. Pollution levels tend to be at their lowest during spring and autumn when winds are freshest. Extreme cold or hot weather has a trapping effect and tends to cause a build-up of pollutants.

最近发布的一项报告给我们带来了关于空气污染的坏消息。报告表明,空气污染可能会像暴露在19阳年乌克兰核电灾难的辐射中一样损害我们的健康。该报告是由英国皇家环境污染委员会发布。城市居民怎样做才可以减少暴露于空气污染呢?相当多,结果如下。  避免走在繁忙的街道上。选择走人行道和公园。只需通过离开主要污染源废气烟气)几米远,污染程度都会大大降低。也不要在吸烟者后面走。在迎风侧的街道上走,这样污染物可以比下风侧的街道上少和%。

坐在公共汽车里驾驶员一侧与坐在靠人行道一侧相比你曝露在污染物中会增加0%坐在双层公共汽车的上层可以减少暴露在污染物中。很难说乘地铁比乘公共汽车更好或更差。地铁甲的空气污染比在街头往往毒性较低,因为地下污染主要是由被击中轨道的微小的铁颗粒组成。但是,还有一些柴油和汽油混合污染物。当你过马路时,要站在离路边远的地方等信号灯。你接近交通每近一米就有很大的不同。当车辆开始移动时,气体会在几秒钟内减少。所以屏住呼吸一小会儿,受到的污染就会不同,即使这听起来有点儿傻。

在交通高峰时间空气污染有较大的突发性的增加。在夜间污染水平会下降。一年里不同的  时间也会有很大的不同。污染水平往往是在春秋时有风的期间最低。极度的寒冷或炎热的天气  会有一种陷阱效应.这时污染物易于积聚。

1.  What is the passage mainly about?:How to breathe fresh air in big cities.

2.  According to the report, air pollution in big cities can be more serious than we used to think

3.  When you walk in a busy street, you should walk on the side where the wind is coming

4.  If you take a bus in a big city in China, you should sit on the right side in the bus

5.  It is implied in the passage that the air pollution on an underground train is less poisonous.

Passage Two

My father had a small business employing about 15 people at any given time. We sold all sorts of dairy products, and many more, from a small store in front of the dairy building. During the summer months, rows of eager tourists lined up at that ice cream counter for a taste of my fathers exquisite homemade ice cream.

Because it was an extremely busy little store, the employees had to work very quickly for hours at a time, with little rest. One day, in 1976, we had a new employee, Debbie, who wanted to work in the store for the summer. She had never done this type of work before, but planned to give it her all.

On her first day, Debbie made just about every mistake in the book. She added up the sales wrong on the cash register. She charged the wrong prices for items. She gave the wrong bag of food to the wrong customer. And she dropped and broke a half-gallon of milk.

I couldn’t stand watching her struggle any longer. I went into my father s office and said “please go out there and put her out of her misery.” I expected him to walk right into the store and fire her on the spot.

Since my father s office was situated within view of the sales counter, he had no doubt seen what I was talking about. He got up from his desk and walked over to Debbie, who was standing behind the counter.

“Debbie,” he said, as he put his hand gently on her shoulder. “I have been watching you and I saw how you treated Mrs. Forbush. Debbie's face began to flush, and she looked as if she was about to cry. She struggled to remember Mrs. Forbush from the many women she had given the wrong change to or spilled milk on.

My father continued. “I’ve never seen Mrs. Forbush be so polite before. You really .knew how to handle her. I am sure she is going to want you to wait on her every time comes in. Keep up the good work.”

My father was a wise and compassionate employer. Because of this, Debbie became loyal and hard-working employee for 16 years--and a friend for life.

我的父亲有一个小商店一般情况下雇用约15个人。我们在乳品大楼前的一个小商店里出  售各种奶制品及其他食品。在夏天的几个月里热情的游客在冰淇淋柜台前排起长队来品尝我  父亲精心自制的冰淇淋。

因为这是一个非常忙碌的小商店,员工们必须很快地连续工作几个小时很少有时间休息。均化年的天,我们店里来了个新员工,她叫戴比,她想在夏天里在商店工作。她以前从未过这种工作,但打算尽力去做。

  在她上班的第一天,戴比每一步都做得不对,她在收银机上算错了账。她收错了钱,她把食品袋给错了客户。而且她把半加仑牛奶弄掉地上摔碎了;  我实在看不下去了。我走进父亲的办公室说"请您出去告诉她别让她这么痛苦了"我是希望他到店里去解雇她。

  我父亲的办公室能够看到收银台,毫无疑问他看到了我说的情况,他从办公桌起身走到戴  比面前.当时戴比是站在柜台后面的。  他把手轻轻地放在她的肩上说"戴比我一直看着你,我看到你是如何对待伏布什夫人的"戴比的脸开始红了起来,她看上去要哭。她努力回想起她给伏布什夫人找错了钱或洒了牛奶的事。

我的父亲继续说我从来没有见过伏布什夫人在你面前的这种客气之态,你真的知道如何接待她。我肯定她每次来都会要你给她服务。就这么好好干吧。

我的父亲是一个聪明和富有同情心的老板。正因为这样,戴比成为店里16年来忠诚和勤奋的员工也成了我们一生的朋友。

1.  The small business run by the author’s father was quite successful.

2.  The author considered Debbie’s mistakes as unbearable.

3.  When the author’s father first mentioned Mrs. Forbush, Debbie thought that she would be punished.

4.  The author’s father didn’t do what the author had suggested.

5.  It can be concluded from the way author’s father treated Debbie that encouragement can make people improve

Passage Three

I saw an ad for a device that allows your dog to talk to you. Bow Lingual, a Japanese invention, entered the American market couple of weeks ago. Named “The Dog Translator,” it sold more than 250, 000 units before heading here. And don’t forget that it was sold at the price of $ 120 each.

It's quite simple, really. A radio microphone attaches to your dog’s collar, and a handheld receiver “translates” barks into 200 different phrases. The device determines your dog’s emotion at the moment: happy sad, frustrated, on-guard, assertive and needy. ( In case you have a dog that barks only in Japanese or Korean it comes with those translations, too. )

As interesting as this new device is--again, I’m kicking myself here--any dog owner worth his Milk-Bones knows this might not be all that necessary a purchase. Our dog, Murphy, for instance, has never had any problem whatsoever communicating with us. Not once in 13 years. Odd as it seems, we can figure out quite quickly what’s on her mind. Just the cock of her head will often do it translation: “Surely you’re taking me with you.” Sometimes it's a solitary bark at the kitchen door after dinner. Translation: “You forgot my treat, Buster!” And sometimes its 100 barks in a row. Translation:” the mailman is here! The mailman is here! Can’t you hear him attacking our house ?”

But I think I witnessed the ultimate dog communication technique years ago. It was a neighbors dog. I can’t remember the breed or name. All I remember is how bright she was she had no need for Bow Lingual. Whenever frustrated with her family, which appeared to be quite often, she would stroll into the living room, turn her back to them and sit directly in front of the TV they were watching. And pee. No translation needed. And you need not be smart or rich to figure that out.

我看到了个可以让狗和人对话的装置的广告。日本人发明的这种要你弓身与狗说话的装置已经于几周前进入了美国市场,他的名字叫狗翻译器"在美国市场销售之前,它已售出超过25万台了。而且别忘了,每个价格是120美元;这其实很简单。把无线麦克风连接到你的狗的项圈上.一个可控的接收器把狗的叫声翻译2叫种不同的短语。该装置日前可以判定你的狗的情感:幸福.悲伤沮丧警惕自信和  需求(如果你的狗用日语或韩语叫的话它也可以翻译)

  需求(如果你的狗用日语或韩语叫的话它也可以翻译)虽然这种新装置很有趣.这里我再一次提醒自己以及任何值得花钱给他的狗买牛奶和骨头  的狗主人.可能没必要购买这种新装置。例如我们的狗墨菲.与我们沟通从来没有任何问题,在  13年里没有一次不成功。看上去似乎有点奇怪,我们很快就可以弄清楚她在想什么。只要她经  常仰起头就可以翻译成你一定要带我和你一起出去。有时晚餐后在厨房门后的一声孤独的叫就可以翻译成:"你忘了给我吃点什么,老兄!有时她会连续叫W次,可以翻译成:邮递员来了!邮递员来了!你没听到他在攻击我们的房子吗?

但几年前我亲眼目睹了我认为是最高级的狗的沟通技巧。这是一个邻居家的狗。我不记得她的品种或名称。我只记得她有多么聪明。她不需要狗翻译器。每当她对家人不高兴的时然  (这似乎是相当常见的事)她就会走到客厅里,把后背朝着他们,直接坐在他们他们正在看的电视机前.然后撒尿。无需翻译。你不需要聪明或富有就能理解她的意思。

1.  We can infer from the passage that sale of “The Dog Translator” in Japan was quite successful

2.  “The Dog Translator” is quiet simple and easy to use

3.  What will the author’s dog Murphy do at the kitchen door to remind them of her dinner? She will give one bark.

4.  What does the phrase ”in a row” in paragraph 3 mean? One after another.

5.  The author seems to think that “The Dog Translator” is popular but useless

Passage Four

Running late again I rushed into the Cub Scouts parents meeting, noting the surplus of empty chairs. At least, I wasn’t the only one running behind, I told myself with great relief.

The Cubmaster checked his watch, and with a barely audible sigh, started the meeting. As the Cubmaster explained the challenges that the group faced in the coming year, he pointed out that the empty chars, which should have been filled with parent volunteers, were our biggest obstacles.

Before i could change my mind, I raised my hand to volunteer as den ( 幼年童子军小队) leader. Although I knew next to nothing about teaching a group of noisy and restless second--graders I was determined to make it work

My first den meeting was as chaotic and noisy as the first day of a county fair. The boys were too excited to sit still. What have I gotten myself into? I wondered, composing a letter of resignation in my head.

Much to my surprise, the boys actually annoyed themselves. They even Invited their mends to join our den, and before long, our ranks swelled from four boys to ten. My son was thrilled to have his mom as den leader; it gave him bragging rights on the playground.

As I walked through the school's parking lot, it was rare when one of “my” boys didn’t call out a greeting or stop me for a quick hug and a story to share. They would talk with me about the little things going on in their lives--whether it was a loose tooth ready to wiggle its that meeting and those who would never know this joy. After all, I gave those boys only one hour of my time every week, but they rewarded me with their hearts.

我又迟到了。我冲进了童子军家长会时.注意到了还有一些空椅子。我如释重负地告诉自己至少我不是唯一迟到的人。童子军负责人看了看他的手表,发出了一声几乎听不见的叹息,然后开始开会。童子军负责人解释在未来的一年里他们团队面临的挑战时,指着那些本应坐满了家长志愿者的空椅子说这就是我们最大的障碍。

当他说话的时候,我感到一种愧疚感在油然而生。我不是也希望把自己七岁的孩子交给个有能力的成年人照顾.而我自己忙别的吗?我很快就意识到这个问题不只是空椅子的问题;它是关乎像我这样的人.大家都不愿意为一个有价值的事业牺牲自己的一点时间。我没有改变自己的主意,我举了手,表示我志愿作为幼年童子军小队的领头人。虽然我也不知道该怎样教一群喧哗和躁动的二年级小学生,但是我决心把工作做好。

我的第一个幼年童子军小队会议是在像乡村集市第一天那样的混乱和嘈杂声中进行的孩子们兴奋得坐不住了。我能做什么呢?我脑海中构思了一封信辞职。但是使我大为吃惊的是.孩子们玩得真的很开心。他们甚至邀请他们的朋友加人我们的幼年童子军小队。不久我们的队伍就从四个男孩增加到了十个男孩。我的儿子因为有他的妈妈作为幼年童子军小队的领头人而兴奋;这下他在操场上就可以吹牛了。当我走过学校停车场的时候总会有的孩子过来打个招呼或让我停下给我个拥抱或给我讲一个故事。他们会和我讲他们的生活中的小事,比如松动的牙齿晃动快掉下来了,或一件特殊的事情出现了,等等。当我看到他们时我就想到没有参加那次会议的家长他们永远也不会体会到这种欢乐。毕竟,我每星期只给那些男孩子们一个小时的时间但他们却用他们的心来回报我。

1.  It is clear that the Cubmaster was disappointed with the situation.

2.  The author began to feel guilty when the master talked about the problem.

3.  It can be learned that the author was willing to take the challenge.

4.  At first the author considered spending time with children difficult but worthy.

5.  The last paragraph is mainly written to show that our efforts on children are rewarding.

Part II Reading Comprehension(40 points)阅读理解二

Passage One

They may be one of Britain s most successful exports and among the worlds most popular TV shows, ranking alongside the world cup final and the Olympic Games opening ceremony in terms of audience. But in Britain, beauty competitions are unfashionable. To most people, beauty contests seem as out-dated as bowing and curtseying. Nicola Baker, a lawyer in London,, said that “As much as I think it’s fine for women to do it, I don t think its interesting and in fact, I think they’re irrelevant to today.” Last year, Miss World was broadcast to 142 countries, but it wasn't even shown in the country where it started in 1951.

It wasn’t always this way in Britain. Once, beauty queens dated footballers, traveled the world and were guaranteed fame, fortune and fun. Now, they open new supermarkets, are sponsored by dry - cleaning companies and, if they’re lucky, they get free clothes from supermarkets.

When Francesca Marchant was crowned Miss Sussex in 1969 it was something to be extremely proud of. “I came from a small town, and all my friends were green with envy when they found out I'd won my boyfriend at the time thought it was terrific and boasted to everyone that he was going out with a beauty queen.”

But the good times couldn’t last the feminist movement gathered momentum. Some women were determined to bring an end to these cattle shows nowadays, saying that you were a beauty queen just doesn’t sound good.

Miss world organizers claim that contestants are judged on qualities other than just their physical appearance. But, Jacques Gold, England’s representative at this year’s contest was not chosen because of her academic record the miss world website states that she left school having gained many computer qualifications and certificates in first aid and life not much of an education.

The only time the contests attract attention now is because of the protesters. At the 1999 Miss world in Britain around 60 demonstrators hurled flour bombs and fought with the nest aex k nes saying fat girls are cool " and women’s bodies are not for sale.

世界小姐选美大赛可能是英国出口最成功的电视节目,并且就观众人数来说是与世界杯决赛和奥运会开幕式齐名的世界上最受欢迎的节目。但是在英国选美大赛已经不时髦了。对大多数人来说,选美大赛就像鞠躬和行女士屈膝礼一样过时了。伦敦的一名律师尼古拉贝克说:  我认为这对女人来说没什么不好,我认为它没什么意思.实际上我认为它们与今天的生活是  不相于的”去年有1轮个国家转播了世界小姐选美大赛可是在1951年发起这场大赛的英国却  没有播放。

 在英国以前不是这样的。以前一日当上选美皇后,她们就会和足球运动明星约会,周游世界.来维持她们的名望财富和享乐现在她们开辟了新的超级市场由干洗公司等赞助如果幸运的话.她们还可以从超级市场获得免费的服装。当|9的年弗朗西丝卡马畅特被选为萨苏克塞斯小姐的时候,她认为这是一件非常值得骄  傲的事情。她说:我来自一个小镇当我的朋友得知我赢得了选美皇后时都特别羡慕我。我那  时的男朋友认为这很了不起.对大家吹嘘说他和一位选美王后约会

但是好景不长。女权运动的势头越来越强。有些女人决心要结束这些像在卖牛时一样进  行的展示"。现在.如果你说你是一个选美皇后.听起来似乎不太好。  世界小姐选美大赛的组织者声称评判参赛者的素质比她们的外表更重要。但是,今年英格兰队参赛的代表杰奎琳金并不是因为她的学习成绩而选上的。世界小姐网站上说:她离开了学校后获得了很多如计算机和救生资格等方面的证书,言外之意她没有受过多少正规的教育现在吸引人们关注比赛的唯一地方是因为抗议者。IW年在英国举行的世界小姐选美大赛约60名示威者投掷了面粉炸弹并和警察发生了冲突。他们谴责选美是一个性别歧视的牲畜市场。他们挥舞着胖女孩也酷"和女人的身体是不出售的横幅表示抗议。

1. In terms of audience beauty contest shows in Britain are now unpopular among most people.

2. The attitude of Nicola Baker towards beauty contests shows is that these shows are behind the times.

3. In the 60s and 70s, beauty queens were admired by most people.

4. Jacqueline Gold was chosen as the representative at this year’s beauty contest because she was judged on her physical appearance other than her qualities.

5. Now the beauty contests can sometimes cause stirs in Britain.

Passage Two

My mother was a vocal supporter of physical punishment but for all her talking she hasnever hit my sister and me only once instead she found ways of punishment that left a morelasting memory.

One day at daycare i watched an extremely tired mother attempt to pick up her daughter The little girl asked momma are we going to mcdonalds for dinner ? the mother replied, Honey not tonight momma has to run a few errands but i wanna go susie i said not tonight susie immediately dropped to the floor . kicking and screaming i want to go to mcdonalds.

No amount of pleading or scolding her mother tried stopped susies tantrum ( )Finally her mother gave in okay susie let s go to mcdonalds . to say i was amazed would be inaccurate : i was delighted that anything i wanted could be had by throwing a tantrum.

That day my mother picked me up early from daycare because we were going to sears &Roebuck . i was excited by the lights and decorations walked through the toy section i saw a toy i had to hav e mama can i have that telephone She replied baby not now but if you are a good girl maybe santa will bring it to you but mama i want that telephone right now tightened on mine.

By now we were standing in the long holiday line and i figured it was now or never I lay down on the ground and began screaming over and over again th e christmas shoppers looked as my mother calmly said becky you better get up by the count of three or else One two . . three

Nothing . i was still in full tantrum so then she lay down beside me on the noor , and began kicking and screaming at a new car , i want a new house i want some jewelry Shocked i stood up mama stop mama get up i tearfully pleaded.

She stood and brushed herself off at first stunned the others waiting in line began to sporadically clap some parents shook their heads at me and said with a smile i bet you ' ll never try that again And i d idn t becau se it left a lasting mental picture more effective than any physical mark.

我的母亲是一个体罚的支持者.但她说她从来没打过我的妹妹也只打过我一次。然而,她  发现惩罚可以留下长久的记忆。我在托儿所里看到过一位疲惫不堪的母亲来接她的女儿。小女孩问,妈妈,我们去麦当劳吃晚饭吗?母亲回答说亲爱的今晚不行。妈妈要去办几件事。”“但我想去。”“苏茜,我说今  晚不行。苏茜马上倒在地上,又踢又叫,我想去麦当劳。

她的妈妈试图阻止苏茜发脾气,但是既不争辩也不责骂她。最后她母亲让步了好吧苏茜,我们去麦当劳。说我很惊讶不太准确;我高兴的是只要发脾气就可以得到我想要的东西。  那天我妈妈提前来托儿所接我,因为我们要去西尔斯和罗巴克商店。那里的彩灯和装饰品使我很兴奋,当我们走在玩具部,我看到了一个玩具,我非常想要。妈妈,能给我买那个玩具电话吗?

她回答说"亲爱的,现在不行,但如果你表现好,也许圣诞老人会把它送给你”“但是,妈妈,我现在就想要那个电话。"她眯起眼睛,把我的手抓得更紧了。这时我们正站在漫长的假日购物的长队中,我想如果现在不行动就没有机会了。我躺在地  上开始一遍又一遍地尖叫。圣诞节的购物者们默默地看着我的母亲她平静地说贝基我数  到三个数你最好起来,否则的话 我没动。仍然使劲地发脾气。然后她在我的身边躺下,也开始踢着脚尖叫我想要一辆新  车.我想要一所新房子,我想要珠宝.我想……H我感到非常震惊,然后站了起来。妈妈,别这  样。妈妈快起来"我含泪恳求道。  她站了起来,拍打了一下身上的灰尘。排队等待的人们先是目瞪口呆,然后一些人开始鼓掌。一些父母对我摇摇头笑着说:我敢打赌你永远不会再这样发脾气了。  是的,我此后再也没有这样发脾气,因为这件事在我的心里留下一个永久的画面,它比任何物理标记都更有效。  

1.        The author’s mother was for physical in theory, but seldom carried it out

2.        What happened between Susie and her mother provided the author with a new idea

3.        The author began to misbehave while they were waitingin line to check out

4.        Whatwas the attitude of the other  parents toward the author’s mother? Appreciative

5.        Which of the following is probably the best title for the passage?When the Daughter Was in Tanturm

Passage Three

For many years officials of the national institutes of health have told Americans that they need to get enough sleep to stay healthy and perform w ell in the past the nih targeted special groups , like drivers soldiers and astronauts.

No health officials have begun a campaign to urge children to get enough sleep the officials say children need at least nine hours of sleep every night . they say research shows that children who get this much sleep perform better in school suffer fewer accidents and are less likely to become too fat.

Studies show that lack of sleep es tiredness and problems with clear thinking People who do not get enough sleep be me angry easily and have trouble controlling their emotion Among children problems that result from lack of sleep often are mistaken for more serious disorders unlike adults tired children seem to have endless energy some doctors mistakenly identify this as hyperactivity. Experts say many american teenagers are not getting enough sleep . teenagers stay up

later for several reasons i neld ng schoo iw ork after school activities and late night fun. Many high school students in the united states start school every early in the morning

Four years ago ed ucat ion officials in m minneapolis m innesota changed the starting time of seven high schools the officials delayed the starting time by almost ninety minutes a university of minnesota study found that attendance at the high schools improved after the starting time was changed e low ever the later start did not greatly affect the performance

of the students still school systems in other parts of the country are discussing later starting times for high school students

The american academy of pediatrics represents doctors who treat children it notes that many sleep disorders first develop in childhood it says doctors often do not identify the disorder until years later. The group has agreed to join in a study with the national center on sleep disorders. Research during the next five years they an to examine sleep problems in very young and older children they also will develop guides for doctors to use w hen testing for sleep.

多年来,美国国家健康研究所的人员直告诉美国人他们需要得到足够的睡眠来保持健康和良好的状态。过去.美国国家健康研究所只针对特殊人群.如司机士兵和宇航员等。现在卫生官员已经开始了一个项目来督促孩子们得到充足的睡眠。官员们说,孩子们每天晚上需要至少九个小时的睡眠。他们说,研究表明,儿童只有获得这么长的睡眠才能在学校表现好,才能出更少的事故而且也不太可能变得太胖。研究表明,睡眠不足会导致疲劳和思路不清。那些没有得到足够睡眠的人容易生气而且难以控制自己的情绪。

在儿童中睡眠不足所造成的问题常常被误认为是更严重的疾病。与成人不同疲倦的孩  子似乎有很多能量.一些医生误认为是多动症,专家说,许多美国青少年得不到足够的睡眠。青少年熬夜有几个原因包括作业放学后的  活动和深夜娱乐活动等。在美国许多高中生每天早晨上学很早:四年前.在明尼苏达州明尼阿波利斯市的教育官员改变了七所高中  早上上学的时间。他们  把早上上学时间推迟了约90分钟。明尼苏达大学的一项研究发现在中学改3  上学时间后出勤率提高了。然而早上上学时间推迟对学生的表现没多大的影响。然而在该  州其他地区的学校系统正在讨论是否要推迟早上上学时间。  

美国儿科学会代表给孩子们治疗的医生。学会指出许多睡眠障碍首先发生在儿童身上。他们说通常到许多年以后医生才能确诊这种病症。美国儿科学会已同意参加与国家睡眠障碍研究中心合作的一项研究。在接下来的五年中,他们计划调查年纪非常小和稍大一些的儿童的睡眠问题。他们也将制定医生测试时用的睡眠问题指南。他们还将提供关于健康睡眠重要性的教育材料。

1.        It can be learned that health offcials used to think that children had enough sleep    

2.        Which of the following is caused by the shortage of sleep ?Lack of self-control

3.        Tired children are different from tired adults in that the latter are more likely to be lacking in energy

4.        Which of the following is NOT the reason for teenagers’ keeping late hours?Suffering from sleep disorder.

5.        Change in the schools’ starting time may be adopted by more school in the fuyure

Passage Four

An american inventor dean kamen says he has invented the world s first self balancing individual transport vehicle called the segway human transporter. The segway looks like a long stick with two wheels the stick has handles for a person

to hold while the wheels are connected by a platform the person stands on the pla and holds the handles and turns them to go left or right . the vehicle moves forward or backward when the person moves his body in that direction.

The segway has computers and gyroscope devices to make it move and balance it is powered by batteries that can be recharged in a few hours by using an electric outlet . it can travel at a speed of nineteen kilometers per hour cost less than ten cents a day to operate. Mister kamen says the segway could replace cars in crowded city centers because it was designed to reduce pollution and solve other environmental problems in citi es 0f owey e r it was not designed to travel on roads.

Mister kamen is a successful inventor and president of the deka research and Development company near m anch ster new h moshi re he has invented about one hundred other device including some important medical devices such as an insulin pump for people a open blocked blood vessels in the heart and heelchair that can move up steps.

The segway will be for sale to the public next year at about three thousand dollars Several businesses are testing the vehicle now including the united states postal service and the bookseller amazon dot com some letter carriers will try riding the vehicles to deliver the mail amazon workers will use them to find books in their huge storage buildings police in two cities also will test the vehicles to see if they can be used for law enforcement.

Some technology experts have criticized the segway vehicle for being potentially dangerous to ride and for not protecting the rider from bad weather they say it holds only ca e m vehicle to avoid walking and getting exercise wever experts say th s interesting and could be used in many ways in the future.

美国发明家迪恩卡门说他已经发明了世界上第一台自平衡单体载人车他给它起名叫赛格威这台赛格威看起来像一个长棍上装了两个轮子。这个长棍上装有可以由人来控制的操纵手柄而车轮连接一个平台。人可以站在平台上操纵手柄,让车向左边或右边转。当人移动身体的时候车辆就可以向前或向后走。赛格威上装有电脑和陀螺系统能使它移动和平衡。它是由可充电电池提供动力的可以在几个小时内通过电插座充电它可以以每小时19公里的速度行驶使用一天的成本不到1美分。

卡门先生说,赛格威能在拥挤的城市中取代汽车,因为它的设计目的是减少城市污染和其他环境问题。然而,它并不是设计用在城市以外的道路上的。卡门先生是位成功的发明家,他还是新罕布什尔州曼彻斯特附近的家研发公司的总裁:他的发明大约有100种'包括些重要的医疗设备,如糖尿病患者用的胰岛素泵,疏通心脏血管堵塞的装置和可以上楼梯的轮椅等。

赛格威明年将以3000美元的价格向公众出售。一些企业正在测试的这些车辆.其中包括美国邮政局和书商亚马逊公司。一些邮递员将试骑这种车送邮件。亚马逊公司的员工将用这种车在他们巨大的藏书楼中找书。有两个城市的警察也将测试这种车辆看看是否可以用这种车来执法  一些技术专家批评驾驶赛格威车有潜在危险而且它不能在恶劣天气情况下保护驾车员。他  们说,它只可以用于一个人而其他小型车辆可容纳三个人。一些人可能通过使用这种车来减少走路和锻炼。然而,其他专家说这种车很有趣在未来可以应用在许多方面。

1.        How can a driver drive the Segwag forward?He should lean his body forward

2.        The Segway is a vehicle that is environment-friendly

3.        It is implied in the passage that the result of the Segway test is not yet known

4.        Whoch of the following is NOT the criticism made on the Segway?It moves too slowly

5.        The passage is mainly written to introduce a new invention to the public

Part II Reading Comprehension(40 points)阅读理解三

Passage One

“Freshman fifteen " is a term which means fifteen pounds or about seven kilograms-the weight students might expect to gain in their first year of college. People used to talk about the “freshman ten ” Before that, it was the “freshman five”

Are freshman more inflated or just the expression ?                     

The fact is many young men and women do put on extra weight when they start college. Some schools that have done research on the issue including Cornell university in Ithaca, New York, have found that freshmen gain an average of four pounds during their first twelve weeks the equivalent of two kilograms.

If weight gain continues at this rate, how long before they put on fifteen pounds ? The answer is forty-five weeks or almost a year.

The next question is w hy do so many freshmen gain weight ? the answers listed by experts are not so surprising one is poor diet : college students often eat foods high in fat and sugar and starch with no parents around to say no to junk food students may also miss meals they could be in class or studying or just . . . busy . in any case those who miss meals are more likely to overeat when they do have food also freshmen often use food to put their mind at ease they have college pressures to deal with . not only that many are living away from home for the first time . another reason college students gain weight is that they often do not get enough exercis e final ly there is something else that can add up to the " freshman five or ten or fifteen . alcohol alcohol is high in calories and this is especially true of beer And no freshmen are not supposed to be drinking not unless they are twenty one the legal drinking age in America.

For many college students the extra weight they put on in their freshman year can be as hard to escape as term papers and final exams.

【参考译文】大学新生十五磅是一个术语,指的是大学新生可能会在第一年体重增加十五磅.或约七公斤。人们过去说的是十磅。在更早些时候说的是五磅。是新生体重增加更多了?还是这种说法膨胀了?事实上,许多年轻的男女新生在他们刚开始上大学后体重都会增加。一些学校,包括纽约伊萨卡的康奈尔大学,进行了一些研究,他们发现新生体重在前十二周平均增加四磅.相当于2公斤.

如果体重以这种速度继续下去.多长时间他们能增加十五磅呢?答案是四十五周或差不多一年。

接下来的问题就是为什么这么多新生体重增加呢?专家列出的答案不那么令人惊讶:是不良的饮食:大学生因为没有父母在身边对垃圾食品说不,他们通常都吃一些高脂肪高糖和淀粉的食物。学生们有时也可能不吃饭。吃饭的时候他们可能在上课或是学习或是在忙别的事情。不管怎样,那些错过吃饭的学生在有时间吃饭的时候可能会吃得更多。同时新生常常用食物来放松他们的心情。因为他们要应对大学的压力。不仅如此,许多人是第一次离开家,大学生体重增加的另一个原因是他们往往没有得到足够的体育锻炼。最后,另一个可以使他们的体重增加到新生五磅或十磅.十五磅的原因就是酒精。酒精里含有较高的卡路里.特别是啤酒。不新生不应该饮酒,他们只有到了二十岁.才能达到美国合法饮酒的年龄:许多大学新生在第一年体重增加可以说是很难避免的事情就像他们必须要写论文和参加期末考试一样。

1. Paragraph 1 is centered on how the “freshman fifteen” gets its name

2. It is implied that parents playa positive role in students’ eating habits

3. Which of the following is NOT the reason for freshmen’s weight gain? They spend more time in their study.

4. It can be said that alcohol is forbidden not only for freshmen but for all students under 21.

5. We can draw the conclusion that weight gain is unavoidable for many freshmen.

Passage Two

Writing is not an easy skill .It is both mental and physical .A person must be able to move the muscles in the hands and fingers to form letters and numbers. Some people are not able to move these muscles easily.

Experts say teachers and parents should suspect dysgraphia (书写困难) if they see handwriting that is unusually difficult to understand .Letters may be formed or spaced incorrectly. Capital letters may be in the wrong places.

Children with dysgraphia often hold their writing tools in an unusual position they may also place the paper in an odd position for writing the disorder generally appears when they first learn to write children continue to write wrong or misspelled words even after their teacher tries, to show them the correct way.

Experts at the National Institutes of Health say the cause of the disorder is not known. Some people with dysgraphia are able to improve their writing ability. But others are not. As with other disorders, the most important part of treatment is for someone to first identify the problem.

There are some simple interventions that can 最完美的地中海风情,不是意大利的热情,也不是希腊的蓝白相间,而是只有316平方公里的马耳他。elp students with dysgraphia. For example schools can give them more time to complete writing activities and provide help taking notes students might be permitted to type their work instead of having to write by hand teachers can also permit students to take examinations by speaking the answers instead of writing them.

Dysgraphia often appears with other learning disabilities. Some students may not be able to organize their thoughts and think about how to write at the same time . so a teacher might advise them to type their ideas first without thinking about writing skills.

Experts say people with dysgraphia may be able to write well if they work slowly and develop their skills.Technology can help . One way to avoid the problems of handwriting is to se a computer students can use the computer . Student can use the computer spell checker to help make sure every word is correct.

写作不是一件容易的事。它既需要我们付出脑力又要付出体力。我们必须要活动手和手指的肌肉才能写出字母和数字。有些人不能轻易地活动这些肌肉。专家说如果看到孩子的笔迹很难看懂,老师和家长就应该警惕孩子是否出现了书写困难的问题。这种孩子可能书写字母不正确或空格不正确。大写字母可能会写在错误的地方。患有书写困难的儿童通常握笔的位置不正确。他们可能把纸放在一个不正确的位置来写字。这些障碍通常出现在他们第一次学习写字时。在老师教他们如何用正确的方法后,他们还是继续写错或出现拼写错误。国家健康研究所的专家们说这种疾病的原因还不知道。患有书写困难的人有些能够提高他们的书写能力。但有的不行。和其他疾病一样,治疗该病最重要的就是要有人首先发现这个问题有一些简单的干预措施,可以帮助患有书写困难的学生。例如,学校可以给他们更多的时间让他们来完成书写活动并帮助他们记笔记。可以允许这些学生把作业用计算机打在纸上,而不是用手写。教师还可以允许学生口头完成考试,而不是用书写完成考试。书写困难的学生通常还会出现其他的学习障碍。一些学生可能无法一边组织他们要写的话边考虑如何把它们写下来。所以,老师可以建议他们先不要考虑写作技巧而是先在计算机上把他们的想法打出来。专家说患有书写困难的人如果慢慢地练习,他们的书写技能也可能会写得很好。现代科学技术可以帮助他们。避免书写问题的方法之一就是使用计算机。学生可以使用电脑的拼写检查来确保每个单词写得正确.

1. Children may be considered to have dysgraphia if their handwriting is unusually hard to understand.

2. Children with dysgraphia may show sign of the problem when they learn to write.

3. To treat dysgraphia, the most important thing is to discover the problem in children.

4. All the following methods can be used to help choldern with dysgraphia EXCERT allowing other students to write the answers for them.

5. The passage is mainly written for the teachers of the children with dysgraphia.

Passage Three

Sometime in the early 1990’s I was treating a woman in an intensive chemical dependency group let’s call her “Grace." Grace was a flight attendant and had beensuspended from her job with a major airline due to her untreated alcoholism.

After the eight week program, I suggested to her it might be a good idea to solidify her foundation in recovery before returning to work as she would be working in a high – risk environment ( serving alcohol being out of town alone etc . ) grace however . Returned to work shortly after completing treatment . one day while she was departing from a plane at the end of long day a major craving for alcohol overpowered her there she was . In the los Angeles international airport pulling her roller-bag behind her when this massive craving to drink came over her she tried to just think through it or " just forget about it . " but it was way too powerful . It was so powerful in fact that she had resigned to herself that she would Just go drink.

On her way to the bar in the airport grace had a moment of sanity. She stopped picked up the airport paging phone 

and said , “will you please page friends of Bill W. , " she paused, quickly looking around for an empty gate, “ to come to gate 12 ?”

Within minutes, over the paging system in the LA International Airport came, “Will friends of Bill W. please come to Gate 12.” Most people in recovery know that asking if you are a friend of Bill W. is an anonymous way to identify yourself as a member of AA.

In less than five minutes there were about fifteen people at that gate from all over the world. That brought tears of

amazement, relief and joy to Grace. They had a little meeting there in that empty gate total strangers prior to that moment grace discovered that two of those people had gotten out of their boarding lines and missed their nights to answer that call for help. They had remembered what they had seen on many walls of meeting rooms when any one many walls of  meeting rooms: When anyone, anywhere  reaches out their hand for help, I want the hand of AA to be there and for that I am responsible.”

Grace did not drink that day. I would venture to guess that none of the people who came to Gate 12 drank that day either.

【参考译文】大约在W年代初的时候.我治疗过位严重酒精依赖的女人。我们就叫她"格雷斯一吧。格雷斯是·位空姐,由于她没有治好酒精依赖症,已经被她工作的那家大的航空公司暂停工作了八周的疗程后我建议她最好在巩固治疗效果之后再返回原来的工作因为空姐的工作环境复发的风险很高(在飞机上要为乘客提供酒类一个人孤单地在外地等)。但是格雷斯治疗完成后不久就回去工作了,有一天当她结束漫长的一天的工作后离开飞机时,对酒精的渴求强烈地占据了她的头脑一她当时就在洛杉矶国际机场拉着她的拉杆箱.强烈地想喝酒的欲望占据了她的全身.她试图用想一下就过去忘了它的办法但这种欲望太强烈了。它如此强大,事实上,她已经退却了,只想去喝酒。 在她去机场酒吧的路上.格雷斯清醒了片刻。她停了下来.拿起机场寻呼电话说:请呼叫朋友比尔.W".她停了一下,赶紧四处寻找一个没人的门"到12号登机口?几分钟后,在洛杉矶国际机场的寻呼系统传来了比尔W朋友,请到12号登机口”C接受过酗酒恢复治疗的大多数人都知道,比尔WAAAkohokAOnynOW匿名戒酒会)成员的匿名方式。

不到五分钟,大约有15个来自世界各地的人都来到了12号登机口。这让格雷斯惊奇地流出了眼泪,她感到宽慰和快乐。他们在这个空荡荡的门口开了一个会,在此之前他们还是完全陌生的人。格雷斯发现有两人是从他们准备登机的队中过来帮助她的,结果他们错过了航班。他们还记得他们在会议室的墙上看到的话任何人任何时候伸出手需要帮助,我希望匿名戒酒会成员的手都会在那里,因为这是我的责任。格雷斯那天没有去喝酒。我冒昧地猜测所有来到12号登机口的人那天也不会去喝酒的。

 1. The author of the passage is a doctor.

 2. What was the author’s recommendation for Grace after her treatment program was over? She should not start work immediately after the treatment.

 3. Grace was overwhelmed by the desire to drink, and decided to do it no matter what.

 4. It can be learned from the passage that a member of AA refers to the people affected by alcoholism.

 5. At Gate 12, Grace received the help she called for.

Passage Four

A married couple was in a car when the wife tuned to her husband and asked. “Would you like to stop for a drink?”“ No thank.” he answered truthfully. So they didn’t· stop. The result? The wife - who had indeed wanted to stop – becamirritated because she felt her preference had not been considered. The husband, seeing his wife was angry , became

Frustrated. Why didn’t she just say what she wanted?

Unfortunately he failed to see that his wife was asking the question not to get an instant decision but to begin a negotiation and the woman didn’t realize that when her husband said no, he was just expressing his preference not making a ruling when a man and woman interpret the same interchange in such conflicting ways. It’s no wonder they can find themselves leveling angry charges of selfishness at each other.

Research shows that the seemingly senseless misunderstandings that haunt our relationships can at least in part be

 explained by the different conversational rules by which men and women often play.

Men grow up in a world in which a conversation is often a contest-either to gain the upper hand or to prevent other 

people from pushing them around. For many women, however, talking is typically a way to exchange confirmation and 

support women often think in term of closeness and support . they struggle to preserve intimacy . m en concerned with status, tend to focus on establishing independence.

对夫妇坐在车里时妻子转向她的丈夫问道"你想停下来喝一杯吗?不,谢谢,他如实回答。所以他们没停车结果怎么样呢/其实妻f确实想停4.结果她就生气了.因为她觉得她的提议没有被丈夫考虑丈夫看到妻子生气了,变得很沮丧为什么她不直说她想要什么呢?

不幸的是,他没有明白他的妻子问问题的时候不是想得到即刻的决定.而是想开始和他商量。而那个女人没有意识到当她丈夫说的时候他只是表达他的愿望而不是做出决定。当男人和女人用这种不同的方式解释同样的问题时难怪他们会生气.并互相指责对方自私。

研究表明,看似毫无意义的误解影响我们的关系至少部分地可以用男人和女人经常遵循的不同的谈话规则来解释。

男人成长在一个竞赛式的谈话的世界里.在这里要么他们占上风要么就是防止其他人把他们推下去。然而对许多妇女来说谈话是一种典型的寻求确认和支持的交流方式。妇女们经常认为在亲密性和支持方面.他们尽力维持亲密关系,男人关注的是地位,往往把重点放在独立性方面 

1. Which of the following words is closest in meaning to “irritated” in Paragraph 1? Angry.

2. The woman considered her husband’s “no” answer as a (n) direct way to make decisions for her.

3. According to the passage, for many men talking is a means to get achievement.

4. By learning the other’s ways of talking, we may keep our disagreements under control.

5. The passage is mainly concerned with why men and women misunderstand each other in their talks.

Passage Five

Questions 61 to 65 are based on the following passage.

In 1950, a young man would have found it much easier than it is today to get and keep a job in the auto industry. And in that year the average autoworker could meet monthly mortgage (抵押贷款)payments on an average home with just 13.4 percent of his take-home pay. Today a similar mortgage would claim more than twice that share of his monthly earnings.

Other members of the autoworker's family, however, might be less inclined to trade the present for the past. His retired parents would certainly have had less economic security back then. Throughout much of the 1960s, more than a quarter of men and women age 65 and older lived below the poverty level, compared to less than 10 percent in 2010.

In most states, his wife could not have taken out a loan or a credit card in her own name. In 42 states, a homemaker had no legal claim on the earnings of her husband. And nowhere did a wife have legal protection against family violence.

Most black workers would not want to return to a time when, on average, they earned 40 percent less than their white counterparts (职位相对的人), while racially restrictive agreements largely prevented them from buying into the suburban neighborhoods being built for white working-class families.

Today, new problems have emerged in the process of resolving old ones, but the solution is not to go back to the past. Some people may long for an era when divorce was still hard to come by. The spread of no-fault divorce has reduced the bargaining power of whichever spouse is more interested in continuing the relationship. And the breakup of such marriages has caused pain for many families.

The growing diversity of family life comes with new possibilities as well as new challenges. Accord-ing to a recent poll, more than 80 percent of Americans believe that their current family is as close as the one in which they grew up, or closer. Finding ways to improve the lives of the remaining 20 percent seems more realistic than trying to restore an imaginary golden age.

61. What do we learn about American autoworkers in 1950? It was not too difficult for them to buy a house.

62. What does the author say about retired people today? They invariably long to return to the golden past.

63. Why couldn't black workers buy a house in a white suburban neighborhood? They were subjected to racial inequality.

64. What is the result of no-fault divorce? Divorce is easier to obtain.

65. What does the author suggest society do? Improve the lives of families with problems.

Passage Six

Questions 61 to 65 are based on the following passage.

Various studies have shown that increased spending on education has not led to measurable improvements in learning. Between 1980 and 2008, staff and teachers at U.S. public schools grew roughly twice as fast as students. Yet students showed no additional learning in achievement tests.

Universities show similar trends of increased administration personnel and costs without greater learning, as documented in Richard Arum and Josipa Roksa's recent book Academically Adrift: Limited Learning on College Campuses.

A survey shows that 63% of employers say that recent college graduates don't have the sldlls they need to succeed and 25% of employers say that entry-level writing skills are lacking.

Some simplistically attribute the decline in our public education system to the drain of skilled students by private schools, but far more significant events were at work.

Public schools worked well until about the 1970s. In fact, until that time, public schools provided far better education than private ones. It was the underperforming students who were thrown out of public schools and went to private ones.

A prominent reason public schools did well was that many highly qualified women had few options for worldng outside the house other than being teachers or nurses. They accepted relatively low pay,difficult working conditions, and gave their very best.

Having such a large supply of talented women teachers meant that society could pay less for their services. Women's liberation opened up new professional opportunities for women, and, over time, some of the best left teaching as a career option, bringing about a gradual decline in the quality of schooling.

Also around that time, regulations, government, and unions came to dictate pay, prevent ac~ustments,and introduce bureaucratic (官僚的) standard for advancement. Large education bureaucracies and unions came to dominate the landscape, confusing activity with achievement. Bureaucrats regularly rewrite curriculums, talk nonsense about theories of education, and require ever more admires" trators. The end result has been that, after all the spending, students have worse math and reading skills than both their foreign peers and earlier generations spending far less on education--as all the accumulating evidence now documents.

61. What do we learn from various studies on America's public education? Little improvement in education has resulted from increased spending.

62. How do some people explain the decline in public education? Skilled students are moving to private schools.

63. What was a significant contributor to the past glory of public schools? Talented women teachers.

64. Why did some of the best women teachers leave teaching? New career opportunities were made available to them by women's liberation.

65. What does the author think is one of the results of government involvement in education? An ever-growing number of administrators.

Passage Seven

It is becoming more and more difficult to be sure that the food we eat is not actually harming us. We seem to get one food scare after another.

Several of these, recently, have concerned genetically modified (GM) foods. Although some experts tell us that these foods will do us no harm and that the concern about them is just scaremongering (spreading of rumour), it would not be the first time that such statements turned out to be wrong. In any case, other experts tell us that GM food is potentially very damaging to health and, at the very best, the jury is still out on the matter.

In many countries, products which have been genetically modified are supposed to show this information on their labels, but now some of the large food producers are saying that it is growing increasingly difficult to separate GM food from the conventional varieties. Meanwhile, people go on protesting over the sowing of trial GM crops.

Pesticides(杀虫剂)and chemical fertilizers are also a cause of concern. In the last few years, a great many people have started to buy organic produce, although this is much more expensive than that which is grown using modern conventional methods. They do so in an effort to stop filling their bodies, and those of their children, with poisonous chemicals.

Some experts claim that organically grown food is no healthier than other food, because the poison level in food is not high enough to be harmful. However, there is an increased demand for organic food and this is not a temporary fashion. There are those who feel that some experts may not be objective, but are part of the powerful food lobby, the chief concern of which is to increase organic food production with a corresponding increase in profits.

The use of additives(添加剂), also, is a source of anxiety to consumers. These are often added to food to improve the colour or the flavour. However, it is thought that some of these may be the cause of allergies(过敏), or even the cause of behavioural problems in children.

We have to eat to live. The problem is: what is safe to eat?

16What is people’s main concern about GM foods?  They might have some dangers we don’t know yet.

17What does the author mean by “the jury is still out on the matter” (Para. 2)?  The matter is still uncertain.

18Concerning organic food, the author tries to tell readers that profit-making is behind the drive to produce more organic food

19It can be inferred from the last two paragraphs that food additives may be more harmful to children.

20.Which of the following best describes the author’s attitude towards the food we eat? Anxious.

Part II Reading Comprehension(40  

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