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复习资料 >> 学位外语 >> 2011年吉林省学位外语考试复习资料大纲(自考网免费提供)

作者:吉林大学自考网                                                       来源:www.jdzkw.com

2011年吉林省学位外语考试复习资料大纲(自考网免费提供)

辅导班:18604448283  微信:18604448283 腾讯:81243041

 一般现在时

  1)经常性或习惯性的动作,常与表示频度的时间状语连用。时间状语: every…, sometimes, at…, on Sunday。例如:

  I leave home for school at 7 every morning. 每天早上我七点离开家。

  2)客观真理,客观存在,科学事实。例如:

  The earth moves around the sun. 地球绕太阳转动。

  Shanghai lies in the east of China. 上海位于中国东部。

  3)表示格言或警句。例如: Pride goes before a fall. 骄者必败。

  注意:此用法如果出现在宾语从句中,即使主句是过去时,从句谓语也要用一般现在时。例:Columbus proved that the earth is round. 哥伦布证实了地球是圆的。

  4)现在时刻的状态、能力、性格、个性。例如:

  I don't want so much. 我不要那么多。exam8.com

  Ann writes good English but does not speak well. 安英语写得不错,讲的可不行。

  二、一般过去时

  1)在确定的过去时间里所发生的动作或存在的状态。例如:时间状语有:yesterday, last week, an hour ago,

  the other day, in 1982等。例如:

  Where did you go just now? 刚才你上哪儿去了?

  2)表示在过去一段时间内,经常性或习惯性的动作。例如:

  When I was a child, I often played football in the street.

  Whenever the Browns went during their visit, they were given a warm welcome.

  那时,布朗一家无论什么时候去,都受到热烈欢迎。

  3)句型:It is time for sb. to do sth  "……时间了"  "……"

  例如:It is time for you to go to bed. 你该睡觉了。

  It is time that sb. did sth. "时间已迟了"  "早该……"

  例如It is time you went to bed.你早该睡觉了。

  would (had) rather sb. did sth. 表示'宁愿某人做某事'

  例如:I'd rather you came tomorrow.还是明天来吧。

  三、一般将来时

  1)shall用于第一人称,常被will 所代替。will 在陈述句中用于各人称,在征求意见时常用于第二人称。例如:

  Which paragraph shall I read first? 我先读哪一段呢?

  Will you be at home at seven this evening? 今晚七点回家好吗?

  2)be going to +不定式,表示将来。

  a. 主语的意图,即将做某事。例如:What are you going to do tomorrow?

  b. 计划,安排要发生的事。exam8.com

  例如:The play is going to be produced next month。这出戏下月开播。

  c. 有迹象要发生的事。

  例如:Look at the dark clouds, there is going to be a storm.

  看那乌云,快要下雨了。

  3)be +to表将来,按计划或正式安排将发生的事。例如:

  We are to discuss the report next Saturday.我们下星期六讨论这份报告。

  4)be about to +动词原形,意为马上做某事。例如:

  He is about to leave for Beijing. 他马上要去北京。

  注意:

  1、一般现在时表示将来

  1)下列动词come, go, arrive, leave, start, begin,

  return的一般现在时可以表示将来,主要用来表示在时间上已确定或安排好的事情。例如:

  The train leaves at six tomorrow morning. 火车明天上午六点开。

  When does the bus star? It stars in ten minutes. 汽车什么时候开?十分钟后。

  2)在时间或条件句中。例如:

  When Bill comes (不是will come), ask him to wait for me. 比尔来后,让他等我。

  I'll write to you as soon as I arrive there. 我到了那里,就写信给你。

  2、用现在进行时表示将来

  下列动词come, go, arrive, leave等现在进行时可以表示将来:

  I'm leaving tomorrow. 明天我要走了。

  四、现在进行时

  a. 表示现在(指说话人说话时)正在发生的事情。例如:

  We are waiting for you. 我们正在等你。

  b. 习惯进行:表示长期的或重复性的动作,说话时动作未必正在进行。例如:

  Mr. Green is writing another novel.

  他在写另一部小说。(说话时并未在写,只处于写作的状态。)

  c. 表示渐变,这样的动词有:get, grow, become, turn, run, go, begin等。例如:

  The leaves are turning red. 叶子在变红。

  It's getting warmer and warmer. 天越来越热了。

  d. always, constantly, forever 等词连用,表示反复发生的动作或持续存在的状态,往往带有说话人的主观色彩。例如:

  You are always changing your mind. 你老是改变主意。

  五、过去进行时

  过去进行时表示过去某一时间正在进行的动作,常和表过去的时间状语连用,如:

  I was doing my homework at this time yesterday.昨天的这个时候我正在做作业。

  They were expecting you yesterday.他们昨天一直在等待。

  难点释疑:

  when作并列连词,表示“(这时)突然之意时,第一个并列分句用过去进行时,when引导的并列分句用一般过去时。如: .

  I was taking a walk when I met him.我正在散步,突然遇见了他。

  We were playing outside when it began to rain.我们正在外边玩,这时下起雨来了。

  六、将来进行时

  1)表示将来某时进行的状态或动作,或按预测将来会发生的事情。例如:

  She'll be coming soon. 她会很快来的。

  I'll be meeting him sometime in the future. 将来我一定去见他。

  2)常用的时间状语有soon, tomorrow, this eveningon Sunday, by this

  timetomorrow, in two days, tomorrow evening等。例如:By this time tomorrow, I'll be lying on the beach. 明天此时,我正躺在海滩上呢。

  注意:主将从现原则,主句用将来时,从句用一般现在时(代替一般将来时)

  When, as soon as, if,等引导的时间状语从句,条件句中,用一般现在时代替将来时。例如:

  He is going to visit her aunt t when he arrives in Beijing.

  他一到北京,就去看他姨妈。

  七、现在完成时

  a. 现在完成时可表示过去发生的动作对现在所产生的影响,后面通常不用时间状语,但句中常出现already, just,yet等副词。如:

  Someone has broken the window.有人把窗户打破了。

  I’ve just finished reading the novel.我刚刚读完这本小说。

  Have you seen the doctor yet?你看过医生了吗?

  注:alreadyyet用法上的区别

  already常用于肯定句,置于句中。yet常用于否定句和疑问句,常用于句末。但already有时也可用语疑问句中暗示惊讶的心情。如:

  b. 现在完成时也可表示从过去某时开始的动作,状态一直持续到现在,常和for, since引导的时间状语连用。

  如: I have learned English for 5 years. He has lived in Beijing since he was born.

  注:

  (1) forsince引导的时间状语的区别: for + 一段时间, since + 一点时间从句(从句中常用一般过去时)

  (2)表示继续的现在完成时也可和lately, recently, so far, up to now, till now, in the past(last) few years……, this week (month, year……), all day, all this week等时间状语连用。

  如:Tom has had a toothache all day.I haven’t heard from him recently.

  (3)现在完成时也可表示从过去到现在曾经经历过或做过的事情,常和often, ever, never, before, once,…times等时间状语连用。如: .

  I’ve never been to Beijing.我从没去过北京。He has read this book before.

  难点释疑:

  1.点动词与延续性动词的区别 .

  所谓点动词是指含有终止或短暂意义的动词。如:begin, end, die, buy, borrow, come, arrive,

  join, marry等动词。它们通常不与表示一段时间的状语连用。如:

  I have bought a book.我买了一本书。 .

  I’ve had this book for three weeks.这本书我已经买了三星期了。

  2. have got的含义 .

  have got形式上是现在完成时,却和have是同一个意思

  She has got a slight temperature. She has a slight

  temperature.她有点发烧。

  3、用于现在完成时的句型

  It is the first / second time.... that…结构中的从句部分,用现在完成时。例如:

  It is the first time that I have visited the city. 这是我第一次访问这城市。

  This is the first time (that) I've heard him sing. 这是我第一次听他唱歌。

  八、过去完成时

  (1)表示在过去某一时刻或动作以前完成了的动作,即过去的过去。可以用by,

  before等介词短语或一个时间状语从句来表示,也可以用一个表示过去的动作来表示,还可能通过上下文来表示。如:

  By nine o’clock last night, we had got 200 pictures from the spaceship.

  到昨晚9点钟,我们已经收到200张飞船发来的图片。

  (2)表示由过去的某一时刻开始,一直延续到过去另一时间的动作或状态,常和for, since构成的时间状语连用。例如:

  I had been at the bus stop for 20 minutes when a bus finally came.

  当车来的时候,我在车站已等了20分钟。

  He said he had worked in that factory since 1949.

  他说自从1949年以来他就在那家工厂工作。

  (3)叙述过去发生的事情,在已叙述了过去发生的事情后,反过来追述或补述以前发生的动作时,常使用过去完成时。例如:

  Mr. Smith died yesterday. He had been a good friend of mine.

  史密斯先生昨天去世了。他以前是我的好友。

  I didn’t know a thing about the verbs, for I had not studied my lesson.

  我对动词一无所知,因为我没有好好学习功课。

  (4)在含有定语从句的主从复合句中,如果叙述的是过去的事,先发生的动作常用过去完成时。例如:

  I returned the book that I had borrowed.我已归还了我借的书。

  She found the key that she had lost.她丢失的钥匙找到了。

  (5)过去完成时常常用在宾语从句(或间接引语)中,这时从句中的动作发生在主句表示的过去的动作之前。例如:.

  He said that he had known her well.他说他很熟悉她。

,   I thought I had sent the letter a week befo, re. 我认为我一星期前就把信寄出去了。

  (6)在包含有when, until等连词的复合句中,例如:

  When I woke up, it had already stopped raining.我醒来时雨已停了。

  She didn’t go to bed until she had finished he work.她直到把工作做完之后才睡觉。

  (7)动词think, want, hope, mean, plan,

  intend等用过去完成时来表示过去未曾实现的想法,希望,打算或意图等。例如:

  They had wanted to help but could not get there in time.

  他们本来打算去帮忙,但没有及时赶到那里。

  We had hoped to be able to come and see you .我们本来希望能来看看你。

  (8)过去完成时还可用在hardly…when…, no sooner…than…, It was the first (second,

  etc) time (that)…等固定句型中。例如: .

  Hardly had he began to speak when the audience interrupted him.他刚开始演讲,听众就打断了他。

  No sooner had he arrived than he went away again.他刚到就又走了。

  九、将来完成时

  a. 状态完成:表示某事继续到将来某一时为止一直有的状态。例如:

  They will have been married for 20 years by then. 到那时他们结婚将有二十年了。

  b. 动作完成:表示将来某一时或另一个将来的动作之前,已经完成的动作或获得的经验。例如:You will have reached

  Shanghai by this time tomorrow. 明天此时,你已经到达上海了

一语法重点串讲
语法是三级英语统考的一个重点,它将体现在所有五个题型中,但重点将集中在以下几个方面。
  1、时态:常用的10—11      2、语态:被动语态  3、情态动词             4、虚拟语气   
  5、动词的非谓语形式三种         6、各种从句(主、宾、表、定、状、同位语从句) 7、主谓一致
  8、倒装句                      9、强调句                  10、附加疑问句
第一章 语法重点串讲      第一节 动词的时态
考试重点:一般现在时(if 从句和as soon as 从句);进行时表将来;现在完成时和现在完成进行时的区别;完成时瞬间动词以及have hasbeen, havehasgone的区别;过去完成时的时间状语;将来完成时。
  一、一般现在式:
1
、表示经常发生的动作或存在的状态:常和always, usually, often ,sometimes, every day, every week的等时间状语连用。
  例:He goes to work every day. 他每天去上班。
  2、表示普遍的真理。由于是众所周知的客观事实,所以一般不用时间状语。
  例:The earth is round. 地球是圆的。
  3、有些表示心理状态或感情的动词往往用一般现在时。
  例:I don’t think you are right.我以为你错了。
  4、在时间、条件状语从句中表示将来的动作:常用的连词有as soon aswhentillif
  (1They will go home for winter vocation as soon as they ________their exams.
  A. have finished  B. finish  C. finished  D. was finishing  (答案:B)(199622题)
  (2When the mixture ______, it will give off a powerful force.
  A. will heat  B. will be heated  C. is heated  D. has heated
  (答案:C)(199259题)
  二、一般过去时:
  1、表示过去的动作或状态:常和过去时间状语连用。just now, last year, when I was 8years old等。
  例:You've already missed too many classes this term .You _____ two classes just last week.
  A. missed  B. would miss  C. had missed  D. have missed
  (答案:A。有具体的时间状语要用过去时。)(199559题)
  2used to do sth:过去常常做
  例:I used to take a walk in the morning.
  我过去是在早晨散步。(意味着现在不在早晨散步了。)
  3it is high timethat句型中,谓语动词用过去时。
  例:Don’t you think it is time you _____ smoking?
  A. give up  B. gave up  C. would give up  D. should give up
  (答案:B)(199931题)
三、一般将来时
  1willshall+原形动词:表示将来的动作或状态。
  例:He will come and help you. 他会来帮助你的。
  2be going to +动词原形:表示马上就要发生的事情或打算好要做的事。
  例:Are you going to attend the lecture? 你打算去听这个演讲吗?
  3be to +动词原形: 表示安排或计划好了的动作。
  例:The Third-Ring Road is to be open to traffic before National Day.  三环路将在国庆节前通车。
  4be about to +动词原形:表示即将发生的动作。
  5、例:The lecture is about to begin.讲座即将开始。
  6、某些表示开始、终结、往来行动的动词如:go ,come, start, arrive leave 等的现在进行时可表示将来。
  (1We are leaving for Beijing tomorrow. 我们明天动身去北京。
  (2The foreign guests are arriving in Jinan tonight. 外宾今晚到达济南。
    四、过去将来时
  表示在过去预计将要发生的动作,常用于宾语从句。
  例:He wanted to know when the conference would start.  他想知道会议何时开始。
    五、现在进行时
  1、表示此时此刻(说话时)正在进行的动作。
  例:The teacher is talking with his students. 这位老师正在同他的学生交谈。
  2、表示现阶段正在进行的动作,但此刻并不一定在进行。
  例:I am attending a conference in Beijing. 我正在北京参加一个会议。
    六、过去进行时
  1、表示在过去某一段时间正在进行的动作。常需用表示过去的时间状语或通过上下文来判断时间。
  例:He was doing his homework from seven to nine last night.  昨天晚上七点到九点他正在做作业。
  2when while 的用法
  (1I fell and hurt myself while I _____tennis.
  A. was playing B. am playing C. play D. played
  (答案:A。连接词when 表示时间上的点,其所引导的句子用过去时,while 表示持续的一段时间,其所引导的句子用过去进行时。)(199843题)
  (2When you _____ this over with her, you should not see her any more.
  A. talk B. talked C. will talk D. talking  (答案为B)(199935题)
  (3One of the guards _____ when the general came in, which made him very angry.
  A. has slept B. were sleeping C, slept D. was sleeping  (答案为D)(199623题)
  3、过去进行时表示过去将来的动作。现在进行时可以表示将来的动作,同样,过去进行时也可以表示从过去某时间看将来要发生的动作。
  例:He went to see Xiao Li. He was leaving early the next morning.  他去看小李。他第二天一早就要离开此地了。
七、现在完成时
  1、表示动作刚刚结束(常和just, now, already, yet等词连用);或表示动作的结果(一般不用时间状语)。
  (1Li Ming has just turned off the light. 李明刚刚把灯关上。(说明现在灯已经关上了)
  (2I have lost my pen. 我把笔丢了。(说明过去某时丢的,现在我还没有找到这支笔。)
  2、表示过去某时开始的动作一直延续到现在,并且可能会继续延续下去(常用since引导的短语或从句,或由for 引导的短语连用)。
  (1He has lived here for 30 years. 他住在这儿已经三十年了。(现在还住在这儿)
  (2They’ve known each other since childhood. 他们从小彼此相识。(现在还继续来往)
  3、非延续性动词的完成时和it is +时间+since…..(过去时)
  英语中有些动词不能延续, 因此不能和表示延续的时间状语连用。
  (1He has _____ the army for ten years and is now an officer.
  A. gone into  B. joined in  C. been in  D. come into
(答案:C。用现在完成时表示继续的概念时,只能用含有持续意义的动词,不可用瞬间性动词。)(199549题)
  (2It is 3 years since I left Shanghai .我离开上海已经三年了。
  (如果是非延续动词,这时常用 it is +时间+since 的句型代替,从句用过去时态。)
  4havehasbeen to have hasgone to 的区别
  havehas been to:去过某地(表示某人的一种经历),可以和oncetwiceoftenneverever 连用。
  havehasgone to:去某地了(表示某人已经离开此地,在去某地的路途上或已在某地,所以一般来说此句型只用于第三人称),此句型不能与上述时间状语连用。
  (1He has gone to America.(意思为他已经去了美国,现在不在此地)
  (2He has been to America twice. 他去过美国两次。
  八、过去完成时
  1、表示在过去的某一时间或动作之前已经完成了的动作(即过去的过去)。这个过去的某一时间可用by, before等介词或连词引导的短语或一个从句来表示。
  例:About the sixth century A.D. when few Europeans could read, the Chinese _____ paper.
  A. invented  B. had invented  C. have invented  D. had been invented  (答案:B)(199735题)
  2、表示从过去某一时间开始,一直持续到另一个过去的时间的动作。
  例:The chemistry class _____ for five minutes when we hurried there.
  A. had been on  B. was on  C. has been on  D. would be on  (答案:A)(199524题)
  3、在含有before, after, as soon as 等连词引导的状语从句的复合句中,由于连词本身可以明确表示动作发生的先后顺序,因此,主句和从句都可以用一般过去时表示,而不用过去完成时。
  例:I called him as soon as I arrived.我刚一到就给他打电话。
  4、过去完成时常用在no sooner …than…, hardly/scarcely/barely…when…,一。句型之中,句子到装。
  (1No sooner had we sat down _____ we found it was time to go.
  A. than  B. when  C. as  D. while  (答案为A)(199750题)
  (2Scarcely had he opened the door when a gust of wind blew the candle out. 他刚打开门,蜡烛就被一阵风吹灭了。
九、将来完成时:表示在将来某一时间以前完成的动作。
  1By the time John gets home, his aunt _____.
  A. will have  B. leaves  C. will have left  D. is leaving  (答案:C)(199525题)
  2I _____ writing the article by the time you get back.
  A. shall finish  B. must have finished  C. have finished  D. shall have finished (答案:D 200024题)
  十、现在完成进行时:表示从过去某时一直延续到现在的一个动作,这个动作一般会继续延续下去,或是到说话时结束, 但是强调到说话时为止一直在做的动作。
  例:I _____ on the door for ten minutes now without an answer.
  A. was knocking  B. am knocking  C. knocking  D. have been knocking(答案:D)(199849题)
第二节 被动语态
考试重点:感官动词和使役动词的被动语态;动词短语的被动语态;情态动词的被动语态;用主动表示被动的含义。
  一、感官动词及使役动词(如:seefeelhearwatchmakebid)在主动语态中用无to不定式做宾补,改为被动语态时要加to
  1The middle-aged man was seen _____ out of the house on the afternoon of the murder.
  A. came  B. come  C. to come  D. have come  (答案为C)(200058题)
  2We were made to study harder. 我们被要求努力学习。
  二、有些动词后面接一个介词或副词,构成短语。变被动语态时,短语动词做及物动词用。
  1The children are well looked after. 这些孩子得到了很好的照顾。
  2The doctor has been sent for. 已经派人去请大夫了。
  三、情态动词的被动语态
  构成:情态动词+be+过去分词。
  1The work must be finished before lunch. 这项工作必须在午饭前干完。
  2Nothing can be seen from here. 从这儿什么也看不见。
  四、用主动表示被动的含义
  常用:need/require +doing sth=to be done)(此句型主语大多为物)
  例:My room is a mess. It needs _____.
  A to be tidying up  B. tidying up  C. to tidy up  D. tidied up  (答案为B)(200047题)
第三节 情态动词    考试重点:情态动词+完成时
  情态动词用来表示能力、允许、许诺、可能、劝告、意愿等概念或态度。情态动词无人称变化,在句子中和动词原形一起构成谓语。根据这几年的考试看,着重测验情态动词接完成时的用法。
  一、must +现在完成时
  表示对已发生的事情的一种肯定的猜测。
  1Mr. Green _____ my letter, otherwise he would have replied before now.
  A. must have received  B. must have failed to receive  C. must receive  D. must fail to receive
  (答案:B)(199844题)
  2I believe he _____ an accident, otherwise he would have arrived on time.
  A. would have had  B. could have had  C. should have had  D. must have had
  (答案为D)(200158题)
  二、should ought to +完成时
  表示应该做的事情而没有做,否定式表示不该做的事情做了。含有对过去的动作的责备、批评。
  1They have done things they ought _____.
  A. not to do  B. not to be done  C. not to have done  D. not having done  (答案为C)(199959题)
  2I’m sorry I couldn’t get in touch with him before he left, I _____ him earlier.
  A. had a telephone  B. have phoned  C. should have phoned  D. should be phoned
  (答案为C)(200026题)
  三、could +完成时
  表示能做的事情而没有做。表示对过去能做而未做的事情感到惋惜,遗憾。
  1He could have joined us, but he didn’t get our invitation in time.
  他本来能够参加我们的,但是他没有收到我们的请贴。
  2I could have passed, but I did not study hard enough.  我本来能及格的,但是没有努力学习。
第四节 虚拟语气    如果所表示的条件根本不可能实现或实现的可能性很小时,称为虚拟条件句。
  考试重点:虚拟语气的基本形式和用法;if的省略形式;含蓄条件句;以wishthat)引导的表示愿望的宾语从句;would rather 引导的从句;以as if, as though 引导的从句;以suggest, advise, insist 等词后引导的宾语从句;It is necessaryimportantthat引导的主语从句;It is time that句型中。
  一、虚拟语气的基本形式和用法:
  虚拟(条件)语气中,主句与从句中谓语动词的形式可分为下面三类:
1
I would ask George to lend us the money if I _____ him.
  A. had known  B. have known  C. knew  D. know
  (答案:C。与现在的事实相反,从句用过去时)(199538题)
  2Do you think there would be less conflict in the world if all people _____ the same language?
  A. spoke  B. speak  C. had spoken  D. will speak
  (答案:A。与现在的事实相反,从句的谓语动词用过去时。)
  3If Bob____ with us, he would have had a good time.
  A. would come  B. would have come  C. had come  D. came
  (答案为C。与过去的事实相反,从句的谓语动词用过去完成时。)(199559题)
二、if的省略形式
  在虚拟条件句中, 如谓语包含were , had, should等词, 则可以把这些词放到主语前面,省略if
  1_____ you were busy, I wouldn't have bothered you with my questions.
  A. If I realized  B. Had I realized  C. Did I have realized that  D. As I realized
(答案:B。虚拟条件句有时可以省略if,而将谓语中的过去式werehad,或should等移至主语之前。199639题)
  2_____, I should ask them some questions.
  A. Should they come to us  B. If they come to us  C. Were they come to us  D. Had they come to us
  (答案:A。与将来事实相反。)(199730题)
  三、含蓄条件句
  有时一个假设的情况不用条件从句表示,而用其它方式来表示,这样的句子叫含蓄条件句。常用withwithoutbut for
  1Without your help, we _____ so much.
  A. didn’t achieve  B. would not have achieved  C. will not achieve  D. don’t achieve
(答案:B。这是一句含蓄条件句,条件暗含在介词短语without your help中,因此要用虚拟语气。)(199633题)
  2But for the rain, we _____ a nice holiday.
  A. should have  B. would have had  C. would have  D. will have had  (答案:B200328题)
  四、以wishthat)引导的表示愿望的宾语从句
  wish后的宾语从句中要用虚拟语气,而在虚拟语气中时态的应用类似在非真实条件中从句时态的应用。表示现在或将来的愿望用:主语+wish +从句(主语+过去时);表示一个过去没有实现的愿望用:主语+wish +从句(主语+过去完成时);
  1Peter wishes that he _____ law instead of literature when he was in college.
  A. could study  B. studied  C. had studied  D. would study  (答案:C)(200053题)
  2I didn’t go to the party, but I do wish I _____ there.  A. were  B. would be  C. had been  D. will be  (答案:C)(200153题)
五、would rather+句子(过去时)
  1I’d _____ you didn’t touch that, if you don’t mind.
  A. rather  B. better  C. happier  D. further  (答为案:A)(199845题)
  2I am too busy these days. I would rather all of you _____ next month for a dinner.
  A. come  B. would come  C. came  D. have come  (答案为C)(200246题)
  六、以as ifas though引导的从句
  在as ifas though引导的从句中,如果谈论的是不可能或不真实的情况时,它们所引用的状语从句要用虚拟语气,动词形式和wish 后面的从中动词形式变化相同。
  1He talks as if he _____ everything in the world.
  A. knows  B. knew  C. had known  D. would have known
(答案:Bas ifthough)从句中非真实性情况用虚拟语气。本句表示说话人对现在的情况有所怀疑,所以用过去时。)
  2You are talking as if you had seen them
  你谈的那么起劲,好像你真的见过似的。(表示想象中的过去的动作)
 七、以suggestadviseinsist等词后引导的宾语从句中,从句的谓语动词要用should+动词原形,should可以省略。
  类似的动词有:proposeinsistsuggestorderdemandrequirerequest等。
  1The doctor advised that Mr. Malan _____ an operation right away so as to save his life.
  A. had  B. would have  C. have  D. was going to have  (答案:C)(199828题) 
 2His mother insisted that he _____ the coat when going out.
  A. put on  B. puts on  C. to put  D. putting on  (答案:A)(199958题)
八、It is necessary/important/urgent that引导的主语从句中,从句的谓语动词要用should+原形动词,should可以省略。
  1It’s desired that she _____ to teach us at least twice a week.
  A. comes  B. will come  C. come  D. may come  (答案:C)(199729题)
  2It’s urgent that a meeting _____ before the final decision is made.
  A. will be arranged  B. must be arranged  C. be arranged  D. would be arranged(答案:C)(200345题)
  九、It is time (that)…引导的定语从句中,谓语动词用过去时。
  1It’s high time we _____ something to stop traffic accident.
  A. do  B. will do  C. did  D. must do  (答案:C)(199643题)
  2Don’t you think it is time you _____ smoking?
  A. give up  B. gave up  C. would give up  D. should give up  (答案:B)(199931题)
第五节 非谓语动词    非谓语动词分三种,即:不定式,动名词和分词。下面分三部分进行介绍。
  一、动词不定式
  考试重点:动词不定式的基本结构和用法(尤其是复合结构,否定式,被动式,完成式等。);stopgo on接不定式和动名词的区别;rememberforget接不定式和动名词的区别;have sth done have sb do sth。 
 基本形式         主动形式   被动形式
一般式 not to make     not to be made
完成式 not to have made not to have been made
进行式 not to be making  
在句子中可以充当主语、宾语、表语、定语、状语和补足语。
  (一)动词不定式的基本结构和用法
  动词不定式是一种非谓语动词形式, 由不定式符号to加动词原形构成。
  1Good-bye , Mr. Wang. I’m pleased _____ you.
  A. to meet  B .meeting  C. to have been meeting  D. to be met  (答案:A)(199857题)
  2Encouragement through praise is the most effective method of getting people _____ their best.
  A. do  B. to do  C. doing  D. done  (答案为B)(199644题)
  (二)动词不定式的被动式
  当不定式的逻辑主语是不定式所表示的对象时(或动作的承受者时),不定式一般要用被动式。
  1The ability _____ is very important for any speaker.
  A. to hear clearly  B. to be clearly heard  C. to hearing clearly  D. to being clearly heard
  (答案:B。动词不定式的被动式。)(199939题)
  2Mr. and Mrs. Smith didn’t expect the house _____ so well.
  A. to be decorated  B. to decorate  C. be decorated  D. decorating  (答案:A)(199522题)
(三)动词不定式的复合结构
  如需指出不定式动作的发出者时(即逻辑主语时)要在不定式前用for加名词(或代词)表示。
  1It was very difficult _____ me to learn Spanish.
  A. of  B. to  C. with  D. for  (答案:D
  2It is necessary _____ the papers immediately.
  A. for you to hand in  B. that you hand out  C. your hand in  D. for your hand in  (答案:A
  (四)动词不定式的完成式
  表示不定式的动作发生在句子谓语所表示的动作之前。
  1Judging from his manners at the party, he doesn’t seem _____ much education.
  A. to receive  B. to be receiving  C. to have received  D. to have been received
  (答案:C。表示发生在主要动词之前的动作,要用动词不定式的完成式。)(199745题)
  2The book is said _____ into several foreign languages up to now.
  A. to translate  B. to have translate  C. to have been translated  D. to be translated  (答案:C
  (五)stop go on后面接不定式和动名词的区别
  动名词表示停下或继续正在做的事情;不定式表示停下以便做某事或改做另外一件事情。
  1The old man walked slowly, stopping frequently _____.
  A. on rest  B. at rest  C. resting  D. to rest
  (答案:D“to rest”作目的状语,意思为停下来的目的是为了休息。)(199929题)
  2Men will never stop _____ for new ways of getting new energy.
  A. search  B. to search  C. searching  D. searched  (答案:C
  3You have been talking for two hours. How long do you intend to go on _____ like that?
  A. talking  B. to talk  C. doing talking  D. talk  (答案:A
  (六)remember forget接不定式和动名词的区别
  remember, forget + doing sth:表示动作发生在过去。
  remember, forget +to do sth:表示动作尚未发生。
  1Don’t forget _____ the window before leaving the room.
  A. to have closed  B. to close  C. having closed  D. closing
  (答案:Bto close表示一个在leaving 之后发生的将来的动作)(200128题)
  2I remember giving the letter to him.
  我记得把信给他了。(giving表示一个在remember之前发生过的动作。)
  (七)have sth done have sb do sth的用法
  1We are going to have our office _____ to make room for a new engineer.
  A. to rearrange  B. rearrange  C. rearranged  D. rearranging
  (答案:Chave sth done:表示这个动作由别人来做。)(200250题)
  2I’ll _____ that I’m a qualified engineer.
  A. have you know  B. have known you  C. have you knowing  D. have you know
  (答案:A。表示让某人做某事。)(200325题)
考试重点:动名词的逻辑主语,完成式,被动式,否定式;动名词做介词的宾语,有时介词可省略;“to”的作用。
基本形式: 主动形式 被动形式
一般时    doing         being done
完成时   having done   having been done
在句子中可以充当主语、表语、宾语和定语。
  一、动名词的基本用法:
  1We shall appreciate _____ from you soon.
  A. being heard  B. hearing  C. to hear  D. having been heard
  (答案:Bappreciate后接动名词做宾语。)(199842题)
  2John suggested _____ anything about it until they found out more facts.
  A. not to say  B. saying not  C. to say not  D. not saying
  (答案:Dsuggest后接动名词做宾语,否定式要在动名词前加“not”)(199553题)
  二、动名词的完成时:表示的动作在谓语所表示的动作之前发生时,用动名词的完成时。
  1I don’t remember _____.  A. ever to be saying  B. to have ever said  C. having ever said that
  D. ever said that  (答案:C
  2I regret having done such a thing.我后悔做了这样的事。
三、动名词的被动式
  1No one avoid _____ by advertisements.
  A. influenced  B. influencing  C. to influence  D. being influenced  (答案:D
  2Susan was very unhappy for not _____ to the party.
  A. to be invited  B. having been invited  C. inviting  D. to have been invited  (答案:B
  四、动名词的逻辑主语
  当动名词的逻辑主语是代词时可使用形容词性的物主代词或代词的宾格。
  1He forgot about _____ him to attend my wife’s birthday party.
  A. I asking  B. my asking  C. me to ask  D. mine to ask
  (答案:B。做介词 about 的宾语, 物主代词+动名词,构成动名词的复合结构。)
  (199829题)
  2I object to his himmaking private calls on the office phone.
  我反对他用办公室的电话打私人电话。
  五、动名词做介词的宾语,有时介词可省略。
  1Don’t risk _____ the job which so many people want.
  A. losing  B. to lose  C. lost  D. your life to lose  (答案:Arisk后接动名词做宾语,riskindoing sth.中的介词in常省略。)  (199957题)
  2I don’t think it is any use _____ this matter any further.
  A. discussing  B. to discuss  C. to discussing  D. to be discussed
  (答案:Ait is no use gooddoing…没有用(好处),动名词做介词in的宾语,常省略。)
  六、有的动词后的to 既可以是不定式符号,又可以是介词,使用时要特别注意。
  1You don’t object _____ you by your first name, do you?
  A. for me to call  B. me to call  C. to my calling  D. my calling
  (答案:Cobject to 中的to是介词,故接动名词做宾语。)(199621题)
  2The students are looking forward to _____ their parents in winter vacation.
  A. see  B. watch  C. seeing  D. being seen  (答案:C
考试重点:分词在句中的作用;现在分词的被动式和过去分词的区别;现在分词和过去分词的区别;分词的逻辑主语与主句的主语是否一致;分词的独立主格;withwithout)引导的分词的独立结构。
  -ING分词是指由动词原形+-ING构成的、具有完成时态和被动语态的一种非谓语动词形式,具体形式如下:
主动形式 被动形式
现在式 doing being done
过去时  done
完成时 having done having been done
就其语法功能而言,它可以作表语、补足语、状语和定语。
  一、分词在句中的作用
  1She was sitting in an armchair _____ a book.
  A. reading  B. to read  C. to be reading  D. to have read
  (答案:A。分词短语在句中做伴随状语。)(199537题)
   2_____ anything about the accident, he went to work as well.
  A. Not know  B. Know not  C. Knowing not  D. Not knowing
  ( 答案:D。分词做原因状语)(200028题)
   3They all returned to the village _____ that the danger was over.
  A. convincing  B. convinced  C. to convince  D. having convinced
  (答案:B。过去分词做伴随状语)(199757题)
   4We kept our _____ all night to frighten the wolves.
  A. burning fire  B. burnt fire  C fire burning  D. fire burnt
  (答案:C。现在分词作宾补表示动作正在进行)(199755题)
  二、现在分词和过去分词的区别
  1She told me that it was the most _____ gift her daughter had received.
  A. delighting  B. delighted  C. delights  D. delight
  (答案:A。现在分词修饰的是事物,常译作令人……”,具有主动、进行的意思。过去分词修饰人,常译作感到……”,具有被动、完成的概念。又如:a moved audience:受感动的观众。)(200338题)
  2My parents are _____ with my progress.
  A. please  B. pleased  C. pleasing  D. being pleased   (答案:B。)
三、现在分词的被动式和过去分词的区别。
  1The interviewer should take down notes at the moment the person _____ answers the questions.
  A. to be interviewed  B. interviewing  C. being interviewed  D. interviewed
  (答案:C。现在分词的被动式。表示动作正在发生)(199733题)
  2Standing on the bank, the children watched the ship _____ with all kinds of goods.
  A. loading  B. being loaded  C. to be loaded  D. having loaded
  (答案:B。现在分词的被动式。)(200023题)
  3We found the eggs eaten by the snake. 我们发现鸡蛋被蛇吃了。
  (过去分词表示动作的完成和结果。)
  四、分词的逻辑主语与主句的主语是否一致。
  1Arriving at the bus stop, _____ waiting there.
  A. he found a lot of people  B. a lot of people were  C. he found a lot of people’s
  D. people were found  (答案:A。分词短语做伴随状语时,和主句共用一个主语。)(199637题)
  2_____ tired after a hard work, she fell into bed and went straight to sleep.
  A. Felt  B. Feeling  C. Being felt  D. To feel  (答案:B)(199850题)
  五、分词的独立主格:分词短语带有自己的逻辑主语,(一般由名词担任)称为分词的独立主格。
  1The plane crashed, its bombs _____ as it hit the ground.
  A. exploded  B. were exploded  C. exploding  D. were exploding  (答案:C)(199943题)
  2Weather permitting, we’ll go to the Summer Palace.
  如果天气允许的话,我们去颐和园。
  六、with without 引导的分词的独立结构。
  1He walked across the meeting room _____ everyone looking at her.
  A. with  B. as  C. while  D. when
  (答案:Awithwithout可以引导分词的独立结构,做伴随状语。)(199749题)
  2With the old man _____ the way, we had no trouble in finding that mysterious cave.
  A. leading  B. led  C. lead  D. to be led  (答案:A)(200027题)
第六节 各种从句
英语中从句包括:名词从句、定语从句、同位语从句和状语从句。
一、名词从句包括主语从句、宾语从句和表语从句。
  (一)主语从句
  考试重点:主语从句常用的连词的用法;it is desirable that引导的主语从句的用法。
  在句子中担当主语的是一个从句,这个从句就叫主语从句。主语从句可以由下列连词、连接代词和连接副词引导,且不能省略。
  连词:thatwhether
  连接代词:whatwhateverwhowhoever等。
  连接副词:whenwherehowwhy
  1、由连词thatwhether引导的主语从句。
  连词thatwhether在主语从句中的作用只是引导主语从句,它在从句中不担任成分,不能省略,且由它们引导的主语从句,多用it做形式主语。
  (1_____ was unimportant.
  A. Whether he enjoyed our dinner or not  B. No matter how he enjoyed our dinner
  C. If he enjoyed our dinner  D. What he enjoyed our dinner  (答案:A)(200040题)
  (2That the earth is round is true.It is true that the earth is round.)   地球是圆的, 是个事实。
  2、由连接代词和连接副词引导的主语从句
  它们分别在从句中担任主语、宾语和状语,不能省略。注意翻译时不能把它们译为疑问句。由它们引导的主语从句,也可以用形式主语it引导。
  (1Who let out the news remained unknown.It remained unknown who let out the news.
  谁泄露了那个消息仍旧无人知道。
  (2When we’ll start is not clear.It is not clear when we’ll start.)  我们何时出发还不清楚。
3
、以关系代词what, whatever, whoever…引导的主语从句。
  What有时可以用来表示the thing which这种意思,引导从句,表示一样东西或一件事情。Whowhomwhichwhat,可以和ever构成合成词,和what一样引导从句,ever起强调作用。此类句子不能用形式主语it引导,它们在句子中担任成份,不能省略,语序为陈述句的语序。
  (1_____ I saw was two men crossing the street.
  A. What  B. Whom  C. Who  D. That  (答案:A)(200138题)
  (2_____ was not the way the event happened.
  A. Which the press reported  B. That the press reported  C. what did the press report
  D. What the press reported  (答案:D。主语从句,what在从句中做宾语。)(199824题)
  4、句型It is desirable suggested, necessary, requested, ordered, proposed, urgent+that+主语+should(可省略)+V(动词原形)。
  (1It’s urgent that a meeting _____ before the final decision is made.
  A. will be arranged  B. must be arranged  C. be arranged  D. would be arranged
  (答案:C)(200345题)
  (2It is highly desirable that a new president _____ for this university.
  A. is appointed  B. will be appointed  C. be appointed  D. has been appointed
  (答案:C)(199752题)
(二)表语从句
  考试重点:表语从句的基本用法;含有suggestionproposal等词的表语从句的用法。
  1、在从句中做表语的从句叫表语从句。它位于主句中的系动词之后,常用的关联词和主语从句相同。
  (1This is what he wants. 这就是他想要的东西。
  (2The question is whether we can finish our work by tomorrow morning.
  问题是我们明天上午能否完成任务。
  2、用suggestion等词表示愿望、建议、命令等情绪时,用虚拟语气,从句中用should(可省略)+动词原形。
  (1The general’s command was that the soldiers _____ their fort and carry out more important tasks.
  A. would leave
  B. leave
  C. left
  D. have left
  (答案:B)(200248题)
  (2His proposal is that theyshouldchallenge the other groups to a friendly competition.
  他提议他们和别的组挑战进行一场友谊竞赛。
(三)宾语从句
  考试重点:宾语从句用陈述句的语序;介词后面的宾语从句;suggestinsistorderdemand等动词后接宾语从句时,用虚拟语气;ifwhether的区别。
  1、宾语从句用陈述句的语序
  (1Can you tell me _____ about the city that makes people love it so much?
  A. it is what  B. what it is  C. what is it  D. is it what
  (答案:B。宾语从句用陈述句的语序。)(199947题)
  (2No one doubts _____ it is true.
  A. whether  B. if  C. that  d. what
  (答案:CI doubt whether/if…我怀疑。I don’t doubt that …我毫不怀疑。又如:I doubt whether he can speak English. 我怀疑他是否会说英语。) 199738题)
  2、介词后面的宾语从句
  (1The people at the party were worried about Janet because no one was aware _____ she had gone.
  A. where that  B. of where  C. of the place  D. the place
  (答案: Bwhere 引导的从句做介词的宾语。)(199848题)
  (2He was a man of fine character in all points _____ he was rather timid.
  A. in that  B. except that  C. for that  D. except for  (答案:B)(199753题)
  3suggestinsistorderdemand等动词后作宾语时,表示欲望、建议、命令等时,用虚拟语气。
  ①His mother insisted that he _____ the coat when going out.
  A. put on  B. puts on  C. to put  D. putting on  (答案:A)(199958题)
  ②The doctor advised that Mr. Malan _____ an operation right away so as to save his life.
  A. had  B. would have  C. have  D. was going to have  (答案:C)(199828题)
  4、在下列情况下不能用if , 而用whether
  后跟不定式:He didn’t tell me whether to go or stay. 他没有告诉我是走还是留下。
  前面有介词:He raised the question of whether we could find the necessary money.
  他提出我们能否筹集到必要的资金这个问题。
  引导主语从句:Whether they win or lose is all the same to me.
  他们胜利也好,失败也好,对我来说都是一样的。
  后面直接跟or notI wonder whether I’ll catch the last bus or not.
  我不知道我能否赶上末班车。
二、定语从句
  考试重点:限定性定语从句中关系代词的用法;关系副词 whenwherewhy,引导的定语从句;带介词的定语从句;非限定性定语从句;名词(代词)+介词+关系代词引出,一般是非限定性定语从句。
  在复合句中起定语作用的从句叫做定语从句。定语从句分为两种:限定性定语从句和非限定性定语从句。注意关系代词和关系副词在从句中的应用。
  (一)关系代词whowhomwhosewhichthat引导的定语从句
  1The company official _____ I thought would be fired received a raise.
  A. whom  B. whoever  C. who  D. of whom
  (答案:A。关系代词whom在定语从句中做宾语,修饰先行词official)(199840题)
  2The investigation , _____ will soon be published, was made by John.
  A. at which the results  B. the results on which  C. whose results  D. at whose results
  (答案:C。关系代词whose 在定语从句中做定语。)(199858题)
  (二)关系副词 when ,where, why, 引导的定语从句
  1The time will come _____ man can fly to outer space freely.
  A. that  B. when  C. in that  D. which
  (答案:Bwhen在定语从句中做状语。) 199635题)
  2I will never forget the ten years _____ we both spent in the little village.
  A. when  B. during which  C. which  D. in which  (答案:A)(200154题)
  (三)关系代词前带介词的定语从句
  1Before her marriage, she spent a cons, iderable time in that very part of Shanghai, _____ she belonged.
  A. which  B. to where  C. to which  D. at which
  (答案:C。关系代词whichwhom 还可以做动词词组后面的前置宾语。这里的动词词组是belong to。)(199856题)
  2The United States is composed of fifty states, two of _____ are separated from the others by land or water.
  A. them  B. that  C. which  D. those  (答案:C)(200323题)
(四)非限定定语从句对被修饰的名词起附加说明,或进一步描述或补充。
  这种从句有一定的独立性,即使去掉,主句的意思仍然完整,只是内容相对地不够具体。与主句之间常用逗号分开,所用的关系代词与限定性定语从句基本相同,但不能用关系代词that 引导。
  (1An Old friend from abroad, _____I was expecting to stay with, telephoned me from the airport.
  A. that  B. whom  C. who  D. which  (答案:B)(200031题)
  (2His brother had become a teacher, _____he wanted to be.
  A. who  B. what  C. which  D. that
  (答案:Cwhich引导的非限定性定语从句,在从句中做宾语,修饰先行词a teacher)(199739题)
  (3He has made another wonderful discovery, _____of great importance to science.
  A. which I think it is  B. of which I think it is  C. I think which is  D. which I think is
  (答案:Dwhich引导的非限定性定语从句,修饰前面整个句子。)(199550题)
  (五)名词(代词)+介词+关系代词引出,一般是非限定性定语从句。
  We’ve tested three hundred types of boot, _____is completely water proof.
  A. no of which  B. none of which  C. some of which  D. neither of which
  (答案:B名词(代词)+of+whichwhom引起的定语从句常表示部分与整体的关系。)(199536题)
三、同位语从句
考试重点:同位语从句的基本用法;含有suggestionproposal等词的同位语从句。
  一、同位语从句的基本用法
  常跟在factideanews等名词的后面,通常用连词that引导。
  1Would the news _____ he failed to pass the exam bother you?
  A. which  B. that  C. of which  D. on which   (答案:B。同位语从句。)(200358题)
  2I had no idea that you were here. 我没有想到你会在这里。
  二、如果同位语从句所修饰的先行词是suggestionproposal等名词的时候,谓语动词用should+原形动词。should可以省略。
  1My suggestion that we do the experiment again is accepted by them.
  我的再做一次实验的建议被他们所接纳。
  2His proposal that theyshouldchallenge the other groups to a friendly competition is praised by the teacher. 他提议他们和别的组挑战,来一场友谊竞赛。这个提议受到了老师的表扬。
                        
四、状语从句
考试重点:状语从句的种类及一些连词的基本用法;让步状语从句;unlesssupposed that),whomeverwheneverwherever等连词的含义和用法。
  在主从句中起状语作用的从句叫状语从句。常见的状语从句有时间、地点、条件、原因、让步、方式、比较、目的、结果。
  一、时间状语从句
  常用的连词有:whenwhenever(无论什么时候),sinceasuntilhardly…whenno sooner…thanas soon asbeforeafterthe momentthe minute(一
  1No sooner had they got the goods covered up _____ it started raining hard.
  A. when  B. than  C. then  D. after
  (答案:Bno sooner…than 引导的时间状语从句。)(200257题)
  2She has wanted to become a nurse _____ since she was a young girl.
  A. long  B. often  C. always  D. ever
  (答案:D。时间状语从句,ever since表示从以后一直。)(199756题)
  二、条件状语从句
  常用ifunless(除非,如果不),as/so long as只要。
  1_____ I’m mistaken, I’ve seen that man before.
  A. Unless  B. If  C. Because  D. Provided  (答案:Aunless引导条件状语从句)(200140题)
  2_____ you return those books to the library immediately you will have to pay a fine.
  A. Until  B. Unless  C. If  D. Provided  (答案:B)(199860题)
  三、原因状语从句
  常用:because, as, since。如果表示必然的因果关系,一般用because引入;而since表示一种间接或附带的原因;用as 只是提一下。
  1He cannot go to school because he is ill. 他因为生病不能上学。
  2Everyone likes you as you are both kind and honest. 人人都喜欢你,因为你既和气,又诚实。
四、让步状语从句常用though/althoughas (尽管),even if/thoughhoweverwhateverwhereverwhoeverno matter how/what/who等。
  1In short, _____ he lives, a man belongs to some society.
  A. whatever  B. whenever  C. whichever  D. wherever
  (答案:Dwherever引导让步状语从句,wherever = no matter where)(199744题)
  2_____, you must show your ticket to go into the cinema.
  A. No matter whoever you are  B. Whomever you are  C. Whoever you are  D. No matter who are you
  (答案:Cwhoever,引导让步状语从句,= no matter who)(199759题)
  3_____ you disagree with her, her idea is still worth considering.
  A. Even if  B. If only  C. Instead of  D. Despite of  (答案:A。让步状语从句。)(199844题)
  4Young _____ he is, he knows what is the right thing to do.
  A. that  B. as  C. although  D. however
  (答案:Bas引导让步状语从句,被强调的部分放在句子之前,进行倒装。)  (200044题)
  五、方式状语从句  常用as, just as, as if/though 等词。
  1_____ was pointed above, this substance can be used as a substitute.
  A. It  B. That  C. What  D. As  (答案:DAs引导方式状语从句。)(199932题)
  2He talks as if he _____ everything in the world.
  A. knows  B. knew  C. had known  D. would have known
  (答案:Bas ifthough)引导的方式状语从句,谓语动词用虚拟语气。)
  六、目的状语从句  常用so that , in order that, lest (以免, 以防), in case
  1I wrote it down _____ I should forget it.
  A. in case  B. in case of  C. in order that  D. for fear of  (答案:A)(200227题)
  2I’ll give you my phone number, so that you can call me when you arrive here.
  我把我的电话号码告诉你,以便你到达这里后可以给我打电话。
  七、结果状语从句
  常用so…that, such…that
  They are _____ students that they all performed well in the nationwide examinations.
  A. so diligent  B. such diligent  C. so much diligent  D. such very diligent
  (答案:B)(200243题)
第七节 主谓一致
考试重点:形式上复数、意义单数的名词做主语;动名词、不定式,从句做主语;a number+of+复数名词和the number+of+可数或不可数名词做主语;主语由as well as 等词修饰时的主谓一致;当用and连接的名词前有eachevery等修饰时,谓语动词用单数。
  一、名词physics (物理),maths(数学),news(新闻),means(方法),works(工厂)等一般被认为是形式是复数,意思是单数的名词,它们做主语的时候动词一般用单数形式。

(答案:C。应改为is。)(200063题)
  2Every means has been tried. 每一种方式都试过了。
  二、动名词、不定式、从句做主语时,谓语动词用单数。
  When and where the new hospital will be built _____ a mystery.
  A. to remain  B. remains  C. remain  D. is remaining  (答案:B)(200057题)
  三、当主语是a number+of+复数名词时,谓语动词用复数;当主语是the number+of+可数或不可数名词时,谓语动词用单数
(答案:A。应改为the199866题)
  2A number of cars _____ in front of my house.
  A. was parked  B. were parking  C. is parking  D. are parked  (答案:D
  四、当主语由as well as 等词修饰时的主谓一致。当句中的主语后接as well asalong withtogether withincludingaccompanied by等短语+名词(代词)时,主语与谓语的一致关系不受影响,主语是单数名词时,谓语动词用单数形式,主语是复数形式时,谓语动词用复数。
  1John, along with twenty friends, is planning a party.  约翰和二十个朋友正在计划举行一个集会。
  2No one but Jane and Tom was there then.  那时除了珍尼和汤姆之外,没有别人在那儿。
  五、当用and连接的名词前有eachevery等修饰时,谓语动词用单数。当主语是each…and…every…and every…many a…and…结构时,谓语动词用单数。
  1Many a singer and dancer is to attend our evening party.  许多歌唱家和舞蹈家将参加我们的晚会。
 2In our country every boy and every girl has the right to receive education.  在我们国家每个人都有接受教育的权利。
第八节 倒装句
考试重点:  1、否定词放置句首时,助动词或be动词要放置主语的前面进行倒装。常用的否定词有:notscarcelybarelyseldomnot untillittle,(inunder no circumstanceby no meansno sooner…than等。
  2only+adv.句子要倒装。
  3norneitherso用于句首时,句子要倒装。
  4、虚拟条件句中省略if时要倒装。
  一、否定词放置句首时,助动词或be动词要放置主语的前面进行倒装。常用的否定词有:notscarcelybarelyseldomnot untillittle,(inunder no circumstanceby no meansno sooner…than等。
  1Not until I reminded him for the third time _____ working and looked up
  A. that he stopped  B. does he stopped  C. did he stop  D. that he stopped  (答案:C)(200053题)
  2_____ the importance of wearing seat belts while driving.
  A. Little they realize  B. They little do realize  C. Little realize do they  D. Little do they realize
  (答案:D)(199631题)
  二、only+ adv. 句子要倒装。
  1Only under such a condition will he make steady progress.  只有在这样的条件下,他才会取得扎实的进步。
  2Only this morning did I hear the sad news.  我今天早晨才听到这不幸的消息。
  三、nor, neither, so 用于句首时, 句子要倒装。
  1So little _____about stock exchange that the lecture was completely beyond me.
  A. did I know  B. I had known  C. I knew  D. was I know  (答案:A)(199830题)
  2I didn’t finish reading that French book, neither _____.
  A. did he  B. didn’t he  C. he did  D. he could  (答案:A
  四、虚拟条件句中省略if时要倒装。
  1_____ you were busy, I wouldn’t have bothered you with my questions.
  A. If I realized  B. Had I realized  C. Did I have realized that  D. As I realized  (答案:B)(199639题)
  2_____, I should ask them some questions.
  A. Should they come to us  B. If they come to us  C. Were they come to us  D. Had they come to us
  (答案:A)(199730题)
第九节 强调结构
考试重点:强调句型的基本形式It iswas+被强调部分+thatwho;强调句型用来强调状语。
  一、强调句型的基本形式It iswas+被强调部分+thatwho

(答案:B。应改为“that”)(199868题)
(答案:B。应改为who
  二、强调句型用来强调状语。
  1It was in that small room_____ they worked hard and dreamed of better days to come.
  A. where  B. in which  C. which  d. that  (答案:D。强调地点状语)(199758题)
  2It is because she is very devoted to her students _______she is respected by them.
  A. that  B. which  C. what  D. who  (答案:A。强调原因状语)(200133题)
  3It was not until she arrived in class _________realized she had forgotten her book.
  A. and she  B. when  C. she  D. that she  (答案:D
第十节 附加疑问句
考试重点:附加疑问句的基本用法;含有否定词的疑问句;祈使句的附加疑问句;一些特殊用法。
  一、附加疑问句的基本用法
  附加疑问句由两部分构成:陈述句+附加问句。一般的规则是:前肯定,后否定;前否定,后肯定。
  1He had to finish the work yesterday, _____?
  A. hadn’t he  B. had he  C. didn’t he  D. did he
  (答案:Chave以外解释时,附加疑问句要用助动词do/does/did。)
  2There won’t be any concert this Saturday evening _____?
  A. will there not  B. will there  C. is there  D. will it be
  (答案:B。当陈述句为there be句型时,附加疑问句用其否定或肯定的疑问句式。)
  二、含有否定词的用法
  若陈述句部分已有表示否定的 hardlyscarcelyneverseldom 等词时,反问句部分要用肯定。
  1She scarcely cares for anything _____?
  A. doesn’t  B. does she  C. is she  D. isn't she  (答案:B)(199545题)
  2You never told me you have seen the film, _____?
  A. had you  B. didn’t you  C. did you  D. weren’t you  (答案:C)(200253题)
  三、祈使句:
  1Please let us have more time , _____?
  A. shall we  B. will you  C. won’t you  D. don't you
  (答案:BLet’s表示第一人称的祈使句,反问部分主语用we时,谓语用shall。如:Let’s goshall we?)(199723题)
  2Don't forget to write to me, _____?
  A. do you  B. won’t you  C. are  D. will you  (答案:D)(199437题)
  四、一些特殊用法:
  1I suppose you’re not serious, _____?
  A. don’t I  B. do I  C. are you  D. aren’t you
  (答案:C。主句的谓语是supposethink,主语是第一人称,反问句部分要和从句的谓语一致。)(199657题)再如 “I don’t suppose you’re going today, aren’t you?”
  2I don’t think you’ve heard of him before, _____?
  A. don’t I  B. do I  C. have you  D. haven’t you  (答案:C)(199233题)

词语用法及语法结构  G5!|y#T  
词汇和语法结构部分共设30个单句,每句1分,共30分。题目中50%为词和短语的用法,50%为语法结构。 k
VWGDI$~  
  词汇和语法结构部分的考试目的是测试考生运用词汇,短语及语法结构的能力。考试范围包括全日制文理科本科教学大纲中词汇表及语法结构表一至三级的主要内容。下面我对这两部分分别进行讲解。 c L?\^[1]K)  
  词汇部分的考试重点:名词,代词,介词,连词,形容词和副词,动词。 DD2a du^  
  名词的考试重点是:名词的含义、名词和动词的搭配、名词的所有格。 ex.+'m  一、 名词的含义: <
sa #|Y$  
  1The _____ of the play is so great that many people want to see it. {!lNL[x  
  A. attention  B. attraction  C.  

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